Somalia

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Location

Somalia is located next to Ethiopia and Kenya to the west, the Indian ocean to the west, and the Gulf of Aden to the north-west. Most of Somalia is flat desert or plains there is very little mountains, of the few mountain peaks there are Shimbiris is the tallest at 2,460 meters (8,071ft) this mountain belongs to the only mountain range in Somalia the Al Madow mountain range.
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Climate

Most of Somalia is a desert. December through February they have monsoon storms. because of the semiarid inland-zone most inhabitants live around the coast. Some natural issues this country face are recurring droughts, frequents dust storms in the eastern planes, and floods during the monsoon or rainy season

Politics

From the year 1991 to 2006 Somalia experienced a time of anarchy, this is regarded as the Somalian civil war however the Somalian civil war is still ongoing. since 2006 the Transitional National Government has been in power. The new faction fighting against the government is the Islamic extremist group Al-Shabaab, which once controlled the capitol of Mogadishu. The current president of Somalia is Hassan Sheik Mohumad and the prime minister is former Premier oar Abdirashid Ali Sharmarke. The president of Somalia chooses the prime minister.
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Culture

Somalia's cuisine differs from region to region however no alcohol or pork is served which unites the regions dishes.

Football (soccer) is the most popular sport in the country. Basketball is the second most popular sport in the country.

Somalian scholars have produced many noticeable Islamic literature. Some modern day Somalian authors have released books that have reached international acclaim. One of these is Nuruddin Farah, who in 1998 won the Neustadt International Prize for Literature. Some of his more known books are From A Crooked Rib and Links are two of his books.

The large majority of Somalis are Sunni Muslims, Christianity is a minor religion with only 1,000 followers.

Somalian Music is focused on folklore and are pentatonic, which means they are have only five pitches

the literacy rate in Somalia is 37.8 percent with only 49.7 percent of males literate and only 25.8 percent of females literate Somalia has the 7th lowest literacy rate in the world.

The main ethnic group in Somalia is Somalis and Benadiris these make up 85 percent of the people while the other 15 are Bantu and non-Somali.

About 43% of Somalis live on less than one U.S. Dollar a day. 24 of these were found in urban areas while 54% were found in rural areas

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Natural Resources and Economy

Economy: Despite suffering civil unrest the Somalian economy has maintained a healthy economy, mainly built off of livestock, money transfer, and telecommunications. Agriculture is the most important for it makes up about 65% of Somalia's GDP. The current GDP for Somalia is 5.896 billion U.S dollars. Somalia has a very small and limited hotel industry the few hotels that operate in Mogadishu and other key cities employ private security militias to do business and provide security for hotel patrons. Somalia has an free market economic system. trade is voluntary, one trade barrier that is in place against Somalia is the arms embargo which the EU has but in place. Due to their central government not being completely stable they can not receive the benefits of the African Growth and Opportunity Act. Somalia does however have free trade agreements with China, Kenya, and Indonesia. Entrepreneurship is encouraged, the private sector grew since 2007 especially in the service sector.


Natural Resources

Somalia has numerous untapped reserves of Uranium, iron ore, bauxite, salt, and natural gas. The Nation is suspected to have untapped reserves of oil. Somalia also has many fishing agreements with European and Asian fishing companies.

Environmental Issues

Somalia has an issue with desertification due to the many droughts that they have recently experienced and with only 1.6 percent of Somalia's land being arable. Other issues include: food insecurity, possible hazardous waste,lack of marine, and coastal management. The largest issue is land degradation.
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bibliography

Environmental and Climate Change Policy Somalia. (n.d.).

Https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/so.html. (n.d.).