The Earth's Interior

The Features of the Crust

The crust is the thin layer of solid rock that includes both dry land and ocean floor. The features of the crust include mountains, hills, rocks and anything that is on the ground outside. The crust that lies beneath the ocean is called the oceanic crust. It is mainly basalt. Continental crust is the crust that makes the continents. it is mainly granite.

The Features of the Mantle

The mantle the layer of hot solid material between Earth's crust and core. Scientist divide the mantle into three layers the lithosphere, the asthenosphere, and the mesosphere. The lithosphere is the top part of the mantle and is rock that is like the rock from the crust. It is hard, strong, and thick. The asthenosphere is below the lithosphere and this material is hotter and under increasing pressure. Over thousands of years this part could bend like a spoon but if you kicked it you would stub your toe. The mesosphere is beneath the asthenosphere and is hot but more rigid. It is really stiff which is happening because of increasingly high pressure. It includes a region called the transition zone which is right below the asthenosphere and goes down to the core.
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The Core

The core is made mostly of the metals iron and nickel. It has two parts a liquid outer core and a solid inner core. The core is in the middle of our planet. The outer core is the lava surrounding the inner core. The inner core is a ball of solid metal. In it major pressure squeezes the atoms of iron and nickle that they cannot become liquid.

How Scientist Study the Earth's Interior

Geologist study the Earth's crust ,mantle, and core. They tell us what each layer is. Geologist use two different ways of studying the Earth. The first way is direct evidence, which is from rock samples. The other way is indirect evidence, indirect evidence is from seismic waves.
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1. Seismic wave- vibrations that travel through the Earth carrying the energy released during an earthquake.

2.Pressure-the force pushing on a surface divided by the area of that surface.

3.Crust-th layer of rock that forms Earth's outer surface.

4.Basalt-a dark, dense, igneous fine texture, found in oceanic crust.

5.Granite-a usually light-colored igneous rock that is found in the continental crust.

6. Mantel-the layer of hot, solid material between the Earth's crust and core.

7.Lithosphere-a rigid layer made up of the most uppermost part of the mantle and the crust.

8.asthenosphere-the soft layer of the mantle on witch the lithosphere floats.

9.Outer core-a layer of molten iron and nickel that surrounds the inner core of the Earth.

10.Inner core-a dense sphere of solid iron and nickel at the center of the Earth.