Viruses and Cells
Ireland Beverly PAP Biology, Period 3 Tyrell
Labeled Animal Cell
Labeled Plant Cell
The Lytic Cycle
The Lysogenic Cycle
The Characteristics of life
-grow and develop
-respond to the environment
-are made of cells
-obtain and use material and energy
Viruses are not living things, they do not respond to their environment, are not made of cells, do not maintain homeostasis, grow and develop, obtain and use material and energy, nor are organized. Though some argue they are living things because they have some sort of genetic material, either DNA or RNA, reproduce, although they cannot reproduce on their own, and evolve.
They do not have some of these characteristics because they are very simple, although some are more complex than others, and have very few parts, usually only a protein coat, enzymes, and nucleic acid. They also do not move and do not obtain and use material and energy nor maintain homeostasis nor grow and develop, .
They do however have certain characteristics because they need only the simplest parts to reproduce and infect organism. Also they are able to evolve due to mutations.
Question and Answer
A: They typical structure and what a virus is made of is a nucleic acid, DNA or RNA, enzymes, a protein overcoat around the virus called a capsid, and sometimes a lipid envelope covering the capsid. The biomolecules found are proteins, nucleic acids, and lipids, which are the capsid, DNA or RNA, and lipid envelope.
Q: Discuss the different ways viruses gain entry into a cell.
A: Viruses gain entry in the cell by either using the virus's surface proteins to match with the host cell's structure or by using a process like endocytosis.
Q: Explain why the Ebola virus would not infect a tobacco plant.
A: The Ebola virus would not infect a tobacco plant because viruses are highly specific and are only able to invade a specific cell, so since Ebola infects humans and animals, it would not infect a plant.
Q: Name five viruses and the type of cell that they attack.
A: HIV attacks helper T cells. Influenza, rabies, and the common cold attack animal cells. While the lettuce mosaic virus attacks plant cells.
Q: You have been diagnosed with the flu. Explain why a doctor will not provide you
with a prescription for antibiotics in order to cure your infection.
A: Your doctor would not prescribe antibiotics because the flu is a virus and antibiotics do not work on viruses.
Q: How is it that a person can be infected with a virus such as HIV and not exhibit
A: A person might not have symptoms if infected with a virus such as HIV since it is a retrovirus and it goes through the lysogenic cycle, meaning it could be years before the virus becomes active.