Chemistry Newsletter

Physical and Chemical Properties

Physical Properties

Physical properties can be looked at without changing how the matter is made up. Physical properties are used to look at, and describe matter. Some examples of physical properties are appearance, texture, color, odor, melting point, boiling point, density, solubility, and polarity.

Chemical Properties

Chemical properties describe matter's ability to undergo a chemical change or reaction. Some examples of chemical properties are oxidation (of metals), flammability, reaction with acids, and reaction with water.

Physical Changes

A physical change is when matter switches forms. Some examples of physical changes are melting or fusion, condensation, evaporation, freezing and solidification.

Chemical Changes

A chemical change is evidence that displays a chemical reaction has taken place. Some examples of chemical changes are the production of gas, permanent color change, production of light, production of flame, and an insoluble solid being dissolved.

Chemical Reactions

A chemical reaction happens when something is new produced by substances combining or breaking down. Chemical reactions come with chemical changes and are very hard to reverse. Some signs that a chemical reaction has occurred are permanent change in color, production of gas, rust, and formation of precipitate.


Products in chemical reactions are atoms and molecules that are created by the reaction.

Reactants in chemical reactions are the atoms and molecules that interact with each other during the reaction.

An example of a chemical reaction is hydrogen gas and oxygen gas reacting to form water.

The Law of Conservation of Mass

The law of conservation of mass is the law that states that in a chemical reaction, matter isn't gained or lost.

Elements and Compounds

An element is a pure substance that can't be separated by chemical or physical means. An example of an element is hydrogen.

A compound is two or more elements chemically combined. An example of a compound is water, which is formed by hydrogen gas and oxygen gas reacting.


An element's properties become almost completely different from the original properties when the elements are formed in a compound. A compound's properties become very different than the original element's properties. If an element is separated from a compound it will get it's original properties back.

Formation of Compounds

A compound is formed when two or more elements are chemically combined.

There are two ways to separate compounds. One is extraction and the other is distillation (liquids). It requires a lot of energy to separate compounds. Elements can't be separated because atoms aren't able to be made or destroyed in a chemical reaction.

Differences and Similarities

Differences-Elements aren't able to be broken down. Elements are one atom. There are 118 known elements. Compounds have two or more elements and there are about 12 million known compounds.

Similarities-Elements- Compounds are made of elements and have a chemical change.


The illustration of a substance using symbols for basic elements or a precise way of displaying information about the atoms that make up a precise chemical compound. It names each element by its chemical symbol and notes the number of atoms present in a molecule of that compound.


A numerical measure of a physical or chemical property that is constant for a system under specified conditions or a number that is constant for a given substance, body or process under certain specified conditions, serving as a measure of one of its properties. Ex: 702

Subscript-a distinguishing character or symbol written directly beneath or next to and slightly below a letter or number. (written beneath) ex: H20

Chemical Formulas

To discover how many elements are in a chemical formula, you count how many chemical symbols there are. Ex. H O There are two elements. To find how many atoms are in a chemical formula, you read the subscripts, or the numbers beneath the elements. Ex. H2O There are two hydrogen atoms. If there is no subscript, it means there is only one atom.

By Reagan Turbak