The basics of CDs in education systems
What is a communication disorder?
- Articulation (difficulty producing sounds)
- Fluency (problems with rhythm and flow of speech)
- Voice (problems with pitch)
- Language (difficulty expressing oneself)
We explored a few different communication disorders more in depth:
- Specific Language Impairment
Causes of communication disorders:
developmental or acquired
exposure to toxins during pregnancy
Who is affected?
More boys than girls are diagnosed with communication disorders
Communication disorders are often accompanied by other psychiatric disorders.
Young children may not speak or have a very limited vocabulary. Cannot understand simple directions or remember names.
School aged children have problems understanding and formulating words.
Teens struggle with expressing and understanding abstract ideas.
How are CDs diagnosed?
Referred for speech/language evaluations
Child psychiatrist is consulted especially when accompanied by emotional/behavioral issues
- Varies depending on recommendations by physician, SPED teacher, speech/ language and mental health professionals.
Examples of Disorders
Specific Language Impairment
Click here to learn more about SLI.
Development of communication skills varies - each person is different
Speaking ability ranges from mute to extensive vocabulary
Pronunciation is typically not an issue; using language effectively is where issues occur
The concept of “give and take” that people without autism use in conversation is often times hard to grasp for people with autism.
People with autism speak more in monologues, not allowing for comments between thoughts.
In some cases, people with autism will avoid all social interaction, or may feel indifferent towards such interactions.
Meaning of language
People with autism often speak and understand language in very literal terms.
People without autism frequently speak in idioms, use sarcasm, or include hidden or parallel meanings in their speech. This sort of language can be difficult for people with autism to grasp.
Many people with autism employ very subtle inflections, tones, facial expressions, and gestures in communicating with others.
People without autism use a different system of body language than people with autism.
Some of this non-verbal communication used by people with autism includes speaking in high-pitches, speaking monotone, and sing-speaking.
Expression through language
People with autism may struggle with communicating their thoughts and needs to others, especially people without autism.
Frustration from this inability to communicate may lead to outbursts in order to get the point across from people with autism.
Said communication barriers, if severe, can lead to depression or social anxiety.
Interventions for ASD Communication Disorders
Very individualized: Could focus more on verbal or non-verbal communication development.
Based around communication and behavior
Parents/caregivers are heavily involved in interventions.
Applied Behavior Analysis, in-home therapy, music therapy, and sensory-integration therapy are several methods of developing communication skills.
Medication has been researched and tested, but there is no conclusive evidence to support any improvement on communication via medication.
A lisp is a speech impediment whose sufferers are unable to pronounce specific sounds”. It is normal for young children to have a lisp and parents should allow the lisp to persist until the child’s fourth or fifth birthday. However, after the age of five, a lisp is no longer considered normal and should be investigated by a speech professional. There are four main types of lisps, the most common being interdental lisps where speakers put their tongue between their teeth when trying to make an “s” or “z” sound. Dentalised lisps occur when the individual puts their tongue against their front teeth and push air outward creating a muffled sound. Lateral lisps occur when individuals put their tongue on the roof of their mouth when speaking and create a “slushy” sound. The fourth and final lisp is a palatal lisp which occurs when the midsection of the individuals tongue hits the soft palate in their mouth and creates a “hy” sound. Lisps are usually treated with short-term speech therapy. Therapy is usually successful in correcting the lisp. During therapy, the individual is taught the isolated sound with which he or she is struggling. After the individual has mastered that sound, they will then combine it into syllables, words, and phrases. After these skills are mastered, the individual will work on speaking naturally and monitoring his or her own speech and making corrections when necessary.Click here for more info on lisps.
- Be informed! Hopefully the information we've provided on this e-poster has been beneficial to you. If you want to learn more, keep researching!
- If a student is on an IEP, make sure you know their goals and how to appropriately accommodate for them.
- Accommodate for students with communication disorders! Small adjustments can make huge improvements.
- Work together! While teachers have a lot of knowledge, we are not specialists in everything. Work with speech pathologists and special education teachers to learn how to effectively adapt for your students with communication disorders.
- Collaborate with parents. Parents obviously know a lot about their student, and they can be great resources for helping the student improve.
- Be patient. Remember, communication disorders are not only a challenge for the teacher, but especially for the student. Let the student communicate on their own without trying to overcompensate for them.
Read a few more tips here.