Infectious diseases

Standards:

  • 8.L.1.1 Summarize the basic characteristics of viruses, bacteria, fungi, and parasites relating to the spread, treatment and prevention of disease.


  • 8.L.1.2 Explain the difference between epidemic and pandemic as it relates to the spread, treatment and prevention of disease.

Microbiology

Microbiology is the study of microscopic organisms, like bacteria, viruses, fungi & protozoa.
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Microorganisms:

  • Viruses- are considered to be non-living but they affect living things. Viruses attack, a host cell. It needs a host cell to reproduce. They are transmitted by: human contact, airborne, & insects/water. To control & prevent the spread of viruses, we get vaccines. Viruses causes: HIV/Aids, Influenza, Polio, Chicken Pox, etc.
  • Bacteria- cells are Prokaryotic. Bacteria are unicellular. They can live in oxygen, without oxygen, & in extreme conditions. Reproduces by Binary Fission. Bacteria is spread by: Direct/Indirect contact, droplet transmission (sneezing, coughing & surfaces.) Sickness caused by bacteria are treated with Antibiotics. Bacteria causes: Rabies, Lyme, Bacteria Meningitis, Leprosy. Classified by 3 shapes: Spherical, Rod-like & Spiral.
  • Fungi- Diverse group of Eukaryotic organisms that live by decomposing the organic material in which they grow in. Examples of Fungi are: Mushrooms, Molds, Mildews, Yeasts.
  • Parasites- are organisms that lives on or inside of another organism & benefits from taking nutrients from host. Examples of Parasites are: Hookworm, Whip worm, Loa loa, Mosquitoes.

Outbreak, Epidemic & Pandemic:

  • Outbreak- Occurrence of a disease greater than would otherwise be expected at a particular time & place.
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  • Epidemic- An outbreak of a disease that affects many people in an area of a specific country or region.

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  • Pandemic- An epidemic that spreads over a very large area or throughout the entire world.
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The difference between epidemic & pandemic is that epidemic only spreads to a specific region meaning its a lot of people in one country. & Pandemic it can spread globally. Similarities, are they both are tracking a lot of sick people, it spreads to wide variety of people.

Important Vocabulary:

  • Outbreak- Occurrence of a disease greater than would otherwise be expected at a particular time & place.
  • Epidemic- An outbreak of a disease that affects many people in an area of a specific country or region.
  • Pandemic- An epidemic that spreads over a very large area or throughout the entire world.
  • Vector- An organism typically an insect, that transmits disease.
  • Pathogen- A virus, bacteria, fungi, parasite, or protozoa that can cause illness & infection.
  • Protozoa- Diverse organism that cannot be classified as animals, plants or fungi. Ex: Amoebas & Algae.
  • Virus- A non-living pathogen that can change/mutate. It infects a host cell & replicates to cause illness & disease.
  • Bacteria- Single-celled prokaryotes that can cause disease. Multiply rapidly & can form colonies.
  • Parasite- An organism that lives in or on another organism, called a host, taking nutrients & often harming it in the process.
  • Fungi- A single-celled or multi-cellular organism that can decompose or absorb matter. Ex:Mushrooms, yeast, or mold.
  • Host Cell- A cell that a virus invades, takes over & makes a copy of itself.
  • Quarantine- A time or place of isolation in which people or animals that have been exposed to infectious or contagious disease are placed.