Photography

Exposure Triangle and Composition

Exposure Triangle

Shutter Speed


  • Shutter speed is how fast the lense snaps a picture.
  • For an action photo you need a fast shutter speed to stop the motion. One two thousandth of a second is a fast shutter speed for a dslr.
  • Bulb shutter is where the lense stays open; this is the slowest shutter speed.


Action shot bad example: shutter speed = 1/8 s

Action shot good example: shutter speed = 1/1600 s

Aperture/Depth of Field

  • Aperture is the measure of how big the opening is that lets the light in.
  • Another word for aperture is depth of field which is how much is in focus.
  • The bigger the lense is open, the deeper the depth of field is. F22 is a deep depth of field, therefore the main object and the background is in focus.
  • A shallow depth of field is F1.8. Using a smaller aperture/shallow depth of field can bring your attention to the main object of the photo and blur out the distracting background which can make your photo look way better.


F4

ISO/Grain

  • ISO is the measure of how sensitive the sensor is.
  • Another word for ISO is grain.
  • The higher the ISO, the more grainy the photo is.
  • The lower the ISO, the picture is smoother.


ISO 1600

ISO 100

Composition

Rule of Thirds

  • Divide a photo into 9 equal sections by cutting the photo with 2 vertical lines and 2 horizontal lines.
  • Place the main object of your photo on one of the vertical or horizontal lines.
  • This places the main object a little off-center which makes your photo more interesting.


Viewpoint

  • Very important to the composition of a photo.
  • Shooting from eye level can make your photo ordinary and boring
  • Shooting from different angles like below, above, or close up makes your photo look more interesting.


Depth

  • Add depth to give a 3rd dimensional look to your photo.
  • Foreground,middle-ground, background.


Leading Lines

  • Our eye naturally follows lines in a photo
  • A photo with leading lines leads us on a "journey" because the lines are going somewhere in the photo.
  • Control where viewers eyes are drawn when looking at your photo.
  • Diagonal lines, parallel lines, zigzag lines, 1 point perspective lines, etc.
  • Enhances composition of a photo.


Fill the Frame

  • Don't leave a bunch of empty space in your photo (this is a common compositional mistake).
  • Zoom in more to fill the frame with the main object


Balance

  • Balance a photo so that there is not an object on one side and a big empty space on the other side.
  • Include objects of lesser importance with the main object to balance the photo.


Background


  • A loud background can distract your eyes from the main object of the picture.
  • Take a picture with a solid colored background.
  • Blur out the background by changing the aperture.



Framing

  • Use natural objects like leaves, fences, archways etc. to frame your picture.
  • Draws your attention into the main interest of the photo and away from the outside world.


Rule of odds

  • Take a picture with an odd number of objects in it.
  • It makes your photo look more interesting.
  • An odd number of objects frames the center of the picture.


Space to move

  • Don't take a picture with the main object or person walking out of the photo.
  • Give your photo a "future" by leaving space in front of the object so the object has space to move into the photo.
  • When we look at a photo we follow the gaze of the person or follow the direction on object is pointed.
  • Always leave more space ahead of a photo than behind it.