Nervous and Reproductive systems

The importance of them

The function

Nervous: The nervous system consists of the brain, spinal cord, sensory organs, and all of the nerves that connect these organs with the rest of the body. Together, these organs are responsible for the control of the body and communication among its parts. The brain and spinal cord form the control center known as the central nervous system (CNS), where information is evaluated and decisions made. The sensory nerves and sense organs of the peripheral nervous system (PNS) monitor conditions inside and outside of the body and send this information to the CNS. Efferent nerves in the PNS carry signals from the control center to the muscles, glands, and organs to regulate their functions.

Reproductive: The reproductive system is a collection of organs that work together for the purpose of producing a new life. Scientists argue that the reproductive system is among the most important systems in the entire body. Without the ability to reproduce, a species dies.

Their definition and a brief description

Nervous: the central nervous system, which includes the brain and the spinal cord. The second nervous system, known as the peripheral nervous system, contains all the nerves in the body that lie outside of the spinal cord and brain. These two systems communicate with each other to make sure our body parts, such as our fingers, can send signals to the central nervous system for processing in our brains. The peripheral nervous system consists of 12 pairs of cranial nerves and 31 pairs of spinal nerves. Some of those nerve pairs are exclusively sensory cells, such as those involved in smell and vision. Others are exclusively motor cells, such as those involved with eyeballs and hearing. Also, there are nerve pairs that have both sensory and motor cells, such as those involved in taste and some aspects of swallowing.

Reproductive: Spermatogenesis is the process of the production of sperms from the immature germ cells in males. It takes place in seminiferous tubules present inside the testes. During spermatogenesis, a diploid spermatogonium (male germ cell) increases its size to form a diploid primary spermatocyte.

Following sex determination, oogenesis begins with the formation of primary oocytes in a process known as oocytogenesis. This occurs before birth. The primordial oocytes, known as oogonia, migrate through the embryo from the germinal epithelium, to the genital ridges and undergo mitosis to produce the primary oocytes. The first meiotic division of these cells also occurs before birth, while the foetus is still developing. However, the first meiotic block will be met here and this process will arrest in the prophase of meiosis I, until puberty begins. These oocytes reside within structures made up of granulosa and theca cells derived from the germinal epithelium, known as follicles, in the ovaries.

Nervous:  Labeling and describing the functions of the major regions of the cerebral hemispheres,diencephalon, brain stem and cerebellum.

The brain stem sits above the spinal cord and has many connections between them. The brain stem, the most primitive part of the brain, is made up of the medulla, pons, cerebellum, midbrain, hypothalamus and thalamus. The cerebral cortex, limbic system and basal ganglia make up the forebrain. The forebrain deals with homeostasis, emotions and conscious actions. The cerebrum is the largest part of the brain and is part of the forebrain. It houses the nerve center that controls sensory, motor activities and intelligence. The outer layer, the cerebral cortex, is made of nerve fibers called gray matter.

The cerebellum, “little brain”, is the second largest region of the brain. The cerebellum is involved in movement and coordination, walking, posture, reflexes, eye and head movement. It coordinates subconscious movements such as balance and coordinated movement. The cerebellum is constantly receiving updates about the body’s position and movement. It also sends instructions to our muscles that adjust our posture and keep our body moving smoothly.

The brain is the control center of the body and contains billions of nerve cells. The brain stem lies just below the cerebrum and in front of the cerebellum. It continues from the cerebrum above and connects to the spinal cord below. The brain stem is made up of the midbrain, pons and medulla oblongata. It carries out many vital functions of the body for maintenance and survival such as breathing, heartbeat, and blood pressure. It also controls vomiting, coughing, sneezing and swallowing. It is the body’s “autopilot.”

The diencephalon lies above the brain stem and embodies the thalamus and hypothalamus. The thalamus is an important relay station for sensory information, interpreting sensations of sound, smell, taste, pain, pressure, temperature, and touch; the thalamus also regulates some emotions and memory. The hypothalamus controls a number of body functions, such as heartbeat rate and digestion, and helps regulate the endocrine system and normal body temperature. The hypothalamus interprets hunger and thirst, and it helps regulate sleep, anger, and aggression.

2 Major disorders that happen in these Systems

Nervous:
  • Transient ischemic attack (TIA), which are mini-type strokes that last a shorter period of time but mimic stroke symptoms; and
  • Subarachnoid hemorrhage, which is specifically bleeding in the space between your brain and the surrounding membrane that can be the result of a trauma or rupturing of a weak blood vessel;

Infections such as meningitis, encephalitis, polio, and epidural abscess can also affect the nervous system, the NIH noted.

Treatments vary from anti inflammatory medications and pain medications such as opiates , to implanted nerve stimulators and wearable devices.

Reproductive: In males, infertility is a condition in they produce no sperm cells (azoospermia), too few sperm cells (oligospermia), or if their sperm cells are abnormal or die before they can reach the egg. Chronic problems with ejaculation (sperm released at orgasm) also contribute to male infertility. In rare cases, infertility in men is caused by an inherited condition, such as cystic fibrosis or chromosomal abnormalities.

For females, one of the more common disorders of the reproductive system is a vaginal yeast infection, which is caused by a yeast fungus in the vagina.

Endometriosis is a condition involving colonization of the abdominal/pelvic cavity with islands of endometrial tissue. If endometrial tissue flushes up the uterine tube during menstruation and spills into the abdomen, the clots of endometrial tissue can attach to abdominal organs such as the bladder, rectum, intestinal loops and then cycle along with the uterus in response to monthly changes in ovarian hormones.