Caroline Pound


Pain in muscles, cough, chills, dehydration, fatigue, fever, loss of appetite, body ache, sweating, congestion, sneezing, runny nose, headache, chest discomfort, nausea, shortness of breath, sore throat, swollen lymph nodes


Influenza travels through air droplets when someone with the infection coughs, sneezes, or talks. Someone can inhale them or pick the germs up from an object (phone or keyboard).

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How Virus Replicates

Usually the virus targets the upper respiratory tract and has many was to invade a host.

Cap snatching- the virus enters the host through an endosome and enters the nucleus, but the virus RNA is negative and then transported into positive by polymerase proteins and exported out of the nucleus (Lytic Cycle).

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Immune Cells

T cells reacts quickly by recognizing the virus to control the viruses replication. Toll-like receptors in endosomes bind to a single stranded RNA which are important triggers to the effects of influenza. If you have had influenza before the body has already made antibodies to fight the particular type of virus either preventing infection or lessening the result.


Influenza can be treated by Peramivir, Zanamivir, Oseltamivir. Peramivir, which is a neuraminidase inhibitor that blocks the virus. Zanamivir, helps treat influenza A and B by the respiratory tract as a neuraminidase inhibitor. Oseltamivir works the same as Zanamivir, but is in capsule form.


To prevent influenza you could get a flu vaccine, avoid contact with the ill, wash your hands, cover nose while sneezing, clean infected surfaces, take antiviral drugs if your doctor prescribes them.