Leaders of the Middle Ages

King John, Joan of Arch, William conqueror

King John

Bio

King John was born on December 24, 1166 and on October 19, 1216 because he ate peaches. King John was born to Henry II and Eleanor. King John disliked his parents. King John was a cruel, disloyal womanizer. King John later married Avisa and had four children with her. When his brother, King Richard, died he became the new king. The changes he made during his reign was what he is remembered for.

Memorable Moments

King John was the person who signed the Magna Carta. The Magna Carta was a charter or document in which King John was forced into accepting. Under the Magna Carta , the king can not do certain things such as tax the nobles without their consent or take land without paying for it.

Importance

The Magna Carta changed the view of laws. The document made it so the king must also follow the laws as others do. King John ended up accepting the Magna Carta because he was threatened by a group of other nobles

Joan of Arch

Bio

Nicknamed the "Maid of Orleans"

Joan was born 1412-Died 1431

Joan of Arch was peasant girl. She lived in the country of France Joan's father was a peasant farmer. Her mother's name was Isabelle and she raised her in the christian faith. Joan grew up to be more religious than other girls her age. By the age of 13 she claimed she was seeing visions. She believed she was being contacted by God.

Memorable Moments

Joan had played a role in the Hundred Year's War. She helped Charles VII become king of France. When Joan was 15 years of age, she had become a leader for the French soldiers resulting in a victory in the Battle of Orleans. This battle gave her the title of "Maid of Orleans". She became a symbol of French Patriotism and later on after her death, she became a Catholic saint.

Importance

During the Hundred Year War between France and English, Joan had played a big roll. When Joan became a military leader she had actually united the country. She had also helped King Charles VII become ruler.

Cause of Death

Joan was captured by the English. She was tried was guilty for claiming to be contacted by God and was guilty for wearing pants.(Back in the day, if women wore pants they could be punished by death.) Joan was tortured and burned alive. Joan died at the age of nineteen.

William Conqueror

Bio

William was born in the year 1027 or 1028.(Exact dates are not known) He died in the year 1087. William ruled England for 21 years. He ruled from 1066 to 1087. William claimed he was to be king after King Edward died, but he couldn't become king that way. He became king because of his army was victorious in the Battle of Hastings. During the battle King Harold was killed. On Christmas Day of 1066 he was crowned king.

Memorable Moments

William was the first Norman King of England. He had kept tight control over his government. William always kept control over several rebellions. William was ruthless, he took people's lands who resisted him. He even some of the lands but the other land he gave the land to his loyal followers. William the Conqueror emphasized lawfulness as king.

Importance

William had created a survey in England to improve the tax system. William placed taxes on property and The records are known as the Domesday book. This book had kept record of how much land landholders have. The book became very important in medieval Europe. He made the landholders swear their allegiance to him as King. A year later after he made landholders swear allegiance, King Henry had died.