Mid-Year Review

Chemistry, Earth History, Infectious Diseases

Chemistry-8.P.1: Understand the properties of matter and changes that occur when matter interacts in an open and closed container.

Physical and Chemical properties

Physical Properties: Odor, Mass, Density, Volume, State, Color, Shape, Texture, Size

Chemical Properties: Flammability, Reactivity, Toxicity, Oxidation
Physical and Chemical Change

Physical Change: Does not form a new substance. Ex: Ice, Rocking chair, Boiling Water

Chemical Change: One or more substance are changed into new substances that have new and different properties. Ex: Burning wood, Baking a cake
Elements, Compounds and Mixtures

Compound: Substance formed when two or more elements chemically combine.( H20, C6H12O2,NaCl)

Element: Building blocks of matter made of atoms. (Oxygen(O), Gold(Au), Nitrogen(N) )

Mixture: Combination of two or more different substances that is mixed but not combined. (Heterogeneous-Bowl of cereal) and (Homogeneous- Water, Perfume)

Periodic Table

Groups- Columns of elements on the periodic table that share common properties

Periods- The seven horizontal rows on the periodic table

Metals- Are on the left these are the most reactive metals

Nonmetals- Are on the right and these are less metallic

Metalloids- Are in the middle and they change form metallic to non-metallic(Transition) Atomic Number- It equals to the number of protons in the nucleus.

Atomic Mass- The mass of an atom of a chemical element that is equivalent to the number of protons and neutrons in the atom

Protons- Inside the nucleus and to find it all you got to do is look at the atomic number because they are the same

Neutrons- Inside the nucleus and to find it you subtract the atomic mass by atomic number

Law Of Conservation Of Mass

Matter can not be crated nor destroyed, it can only be transferred from state to state.

compound- Substance formed when two or more elements chemically combine.

Matter- Anything that has mass and takes up space

Solution- A substance made as a result of mixing a solid and a liquid and the solid dissolves

Atom- The basic building block for all matter

Mixture- Combination of two or more different substances that is mixed but not combined

Element- Building blocks of matter made of atoms

Earth History

Law Of Superposition

The law of superposition is younger rocks lie above rocks if the layer have not been disturb.
Index Fossils

A fossil that is found in the rock layers of only one geologic age and is used to establish the age of the rock layers.
Ice Cores

A core that is typically removed from the sheet
Geologic Time Scale

Record of earth history from its origin to its present time and used to identify events & environmental changes and development of life forms in the rocks.
Relative and Absolute Dating

Relative dating is determining the age of object or events in relation to other objects or events.

Absolute dating is a technique used to determine the actual age of a fossil.
Half-Life/ Radioactive Decay

Half-Life is time it takes for 1/2 of the isotopes to decay.

Radioactive decay is if an isotope is radioactive it will break down little by little.


Relative dating, Absolute dating, Ice core, Law of superposition, Index fossil, Geology, Isotopes, Carbon dating

Infectious Disease


An organisms too small to be viewed by the unaided eye.

Virus, Bacteria, Fungi, Parasite

Virus: A small nonliving particle that invades and then reproduces inside a living cell.

Bacteria: Single-Celled organisms that lack a nucleus prokaryotes

Fungi: Are living particles that uses agents such as wind, water, or animals through its spores to make tiny reproductive cells.

Parasites: Are living particles that moves on their own from one organism to the next

Epidemic vs. Pandemic

Epidemic is a widespread outbreak of an infectious disease within a small population or community.

Pandemic is an outbreak of an infectious disease that affects large populations.


To prevent/ treat these disease are the spread of the disease you should get vaccines or get antibiotics, you should have good hygiene. There should be travel regulations and you should be quarantines if affected with something serious.


Biotechnology is the use of living cells, bacteria,etc..., to make useful products(such as crops) that insect are less likely to destroy or make new kinds of medicines.


Agricultural and Food Science, Product Development Technician, Animal technician, Laboratory technician, Food Sampler Inspector, Clinical Research Associate, Glass washer

Agriculture, Medicine, Economy

Agriculture affects biotechnology because agriculture has a range of modern plant breeding which help biotechnology.

Medicine affects biotechnology because once bio-technologist figure out what something is then the medicine can help either cure or make new things.

Economy affects bio-technologist because the more we make better medicine and agriculture the more other countries will want it and that will help the economy get more money.


Vector, Epidemic, Pandemic, Virus, Bacteria, Vaccination, Microorganism, Fungi, Parasite, Biotechnology, Genetic Engineering, Cloning, DNA, Bio-Remediation, Genetically Modified organism