Mid-Year Review

Chemistry, Earth History, Infectious Diseases

Chemistry- 8.p.1- Understand the properties of matter and changes that occur when matter interacts in an open and closed container.

Physical and Chemical Properties

Chemical properties cannot be observed with your senses determine how a substances interacts with another substance (flammability, Reactivity). Physical properties can be observed without changing the identity of the substance (color,size,weight,smell,boiling point,melting point).

Physical and Chemical changes

Physical changes are one or more substances are changed into new substances that have new and different properties (new color. heat,light,sound is given off or absorbed.bubbles of gas are formed, a new odor may be noticed, changes are difficult of impossible to reverse. Chemical changes does not form a new substance (ice cream melting or cutting a orange in half, its still the same substance).

Elements, Compounds, and Mixtures

Elements are made of one atom and cannot be separated into simpler substances by physical or chemical means, located on the periodic table.

Compounds are made of 2 or more different elements that are bonded together and made of elements in a specific ratio that is always the same. Has a chemical formula and can only be separated by chemical means, not physically (H2O, NaCl, CO2).

Mixture are combination of 2 or more pure substances that are held together by physical forces, not chemical

Periodic Table

A table of the chemical elements arranged in order of atomic number, usually in rows, so that elements with similar atomic structure (and have similar chemical properties) appear in vertical columns.

Groups and Periods

Groups are columns (up and down) of elements on the periodic table that share common properties.

Periods are horizontal (left to right) and there is seven of them in the periodic table.

Metals, Non-Metals, and Metalloids

Metals are on the left.

Nonmetal on the right

Metalliod are in the middle on the staircase line.

Atomic number, Atomic mass, Protons, Neutrons, and Electrons

To find protons and electrons look at the atomic number.

To find neutrons you have to find the atomic mass and round it to the nearest whole number then subtract by the number of protons or electrons.

The periodic table is organized by increasing atomic number.

Atomic mass is the sum of protons and neutrons in the nucleus of an atom.

Law of Conservation of Mass

The law of conservation of mass states that matter cannot be created nor destroyed; it can only be transferred from state to state.


Compound, Matter, Solution, Atom, Mixture, Element.

Earth History- 8.E.2- understand the history of earth and its life forms based on evidence of change recorded in fossil records and land forms.

Law of Superposition

The geologic principle that states that in horizontal layers of sedimentary rock, each layer is older than the layer above it and younger than the layer below it.

Index Fossils

Fossils of widely distributed organisms that lived during only one short period.

Ice Cores

Trapped gases like greenhouse gases, trapped in ice and we can check the climate by it.

Geologic Time Scale

Earth history is written in stone. Evidence for the history of the earth allows geologist to identify the geological processes that resulted in the formation or each rock,reconstruct plant and or animal life. To reconstruct atmospheric/climatic condition and changed through time. (oldest to youngest) Precambrian, Paleozoic, Mesozoic, and Cenozoic era.

Relative and Absolute Dating

Absolute dating is the age of a rock given as the number of years since the rock formed.

Relative dating is the age of a rock compared to the ages of rock layers.

Half-Life and Radioactive Decay

A half-life is 5,730 years, its the amount of time it takes for it to fall to half of its life from the beginning of its time period.

Radioactive decay is the process of by which a nucleus of an unstable atom loses energy by emitting ionizing radiation.


Geology, relative dating, absolute dating, index fossil, law of superposition, ice core.

Infectious Disease


Many types of microorganisms include; Viruses, Bacteria, Parasites, and other. The characteristics of this microorganism include Unicellular (single celled organisms), microscopic, and very diverse(lots of kinds). Many microorganism cause disease.

Viruses are considered to be non-living and in order for them to reproduce they need a host cell

Bacteria are unicellular and are living and can live without oxygen and in extreme conditions.

Fungi are living and are transmitted by soil and other places and is considered living.

Parasites are living and move on their own from one organism to the next.

Epidemic vs Pandemic

Epidemic is an outbreak of a disease in a city state or country.

Pandemic is an outbreak of a disease in multiple countries.


To prevent stuff like outbreaks you should quarantine the infected person and wash you hands and try not touching your face as often as you do. Treatments for viruses are vaccines and for bacteria they are antibiotics.


The exploitation of biological processes for industrial and other purposes, especially the genetic manipulation of microorganisms for the production of antibiotics, hormones, etc.

Careers for this job are biomanufacturing and biofuels.