Biome project

By luis dan camacho roldan

Tundra

Arctic
Arctic tundra is located in the northern hemisphere, encircling the north pole and extending south to the coniferous forests of the taiga. The arctic is known for its cold, desert-like conditions. The growing season ranges from 50 to 60 days. The average winter temperature is -34° C (-30° F), but the average summer temperature is 3-12° C (37-54° F) which enables this biome to sustain life. Rainfall may vary in different regions of the arctic. Yearly precipitation, including melting snow, is 15 to 25 cm (6 to 10 inches). Soil is formed slowly. A layer of permanently frozen subsoil called permafrost exists, consisting mostly of gravel and finer material. When water saturates the upper surface, bogs and ponds may form, providing moisture for plants. There are no deep root systems in the vegetation of the arctic tundra, however, there are still a wide variety of plants that are able to resist the cold climate. There are about 1,700 kinds of plants in the arctic and subarctic, and these include:
  • low shrubs, sedges, reindeer mosses, liverworts, and grasses
  • 400 varieties of flowers
  • crustose and foliose lichen
All of the plants are adapted to sweeping winds and disturbances of the soil. Plants are short and group together to resist the cold temperatures and are protected by the snow during the winter. They can carry out photosynthesis at low temperatures and low light intensities. The growing seasons are short and most plants reproduce by budding and division rather than sexually by flowering. The fauna in the arctic is also diverse:
  • Herbivorous mammals: lemmings, voles, caribou, arctic hares and squirrels
  • Carnivorous mammals: arctic foxes, wolves, and polar bears
  • Migratory birds: ravens, snow buntings, falcons, loons, ravens, sandpipers, terns, snow birds, and various species of gulls
  • Insects: mosquitoes, flies, moths, grasshoppers, blackflies and arctic bumble bees
  • Fish: cod, flatfish, salmon, and trout
Animals are adapted to handle long, cold winters and to breed and raise young quickly in the summer. Animals such as mammals and birds also have additional insulation from fat. Many animals hibernate during the winter because food is not abundant. Another alternative is to migrate south in the winter, like birds do. Reptiles and amphibians are few or absent because of the extremely cold temperatures. Because of constant immigration and emigration, the population continually oscillates.

Alpine
Alpine tundra is located on mountains throughout the world at high altitude where trees cannot grow. The growing season is approximately 180 days. The nighttime temperature is usually below freezing. Unlike the arctic tundra, the soil in the alpine is well drained. The plants are very similar to those of the arctic ones and include:

  • tussock grasses, dwarf trees, small-leafed shrubs, and heaths
Animals living in the alpine tundra are also well adapted:
  • Mammals: pikas, marmots, mountain goats, sheep, elk
  • Birds: grouselike birds
  • Insects: springtails, beetles, grasshoppers, butterflies

Taiga

ClimateFrom 64 to 72 °F. In winter -14 °F

PlantsConiferous, pines, oak, maple and elm trees.

AnimalsMooses, lynx, bears, wolverines, foxes, squirrels.

LocationNorth America and Eurasia

Temperature Deciduous Forest

Temperature

-30°C to 30°C, yearly average is 10°C, hot summers, cold winters

Precipitation

750 to 1,500 mm of rain per year

Vegetation

Broadleaf trees (oaks, maples, beeches), shrubs, perennial herbs, and mosses

Location

Eastern United States, Canada, Europe, China, and Japan

Other

Temperate deciduous forests are most notable because they go through four seasons. Leaves change color in autumn, fall off in the winter, and grow back in the spring; this adaptation allows plants to survive cold winters

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Grassland

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info

Location

Temperate grasslands are located north of the Tropic of Cancer (23.5 degrees North) and south of the Tropic of Capricorn (23.5 degrees South). The major temperate grasslands include the veldts of Africa, the pampas of South America, the steppes of Eurasia, and the plains of North America.

Plants

Grasses are the dominant vegetation. Trees and large shrubs are largely absent. Seasonal drought, occasional fires and grazing by large mammals all prevent woody shrubs and trees from becoming established. A few trees such as cottonwoods, oaks and willows grow in river valleys, and a few hundred species of flowers grow among the grasses. The various species of grasses include purple needlegrass, blue grama, buffalo grass, and galleta. Flowers include asters, blazing stars, coneflowers, goldenrods, sunflowers, clovers, psoraleas, and wild indigos.

Animals

Temperate grasslands have a low diversity of wildlife, but a high abundance of wildlife. In North America the dominant grazing animals are bison and pronghorn. Rodents include pocket gophers and prairie dogs. Carnivores include wolves, coyotes, swift foxes, badgers and black-footed ferrets. Birds include grouses, meadowlarks, quails, sparrows, hawks and owls.

Climate

Temperate grasslands have hot summers and cold winters. Summer temperatures can be well over 100 degrees Fahrenheit, while winter temperatures can be as low as -40 degrees Fahrenheit. They typically have between 10 and 35 inches of precipitation a year, much of it occurring in the late spring and early summer. Snow often serves as a reservoir of moisture for the beginning of the growing season. Seasonal drought and occasional fires help maintain these grasslands

Desert

The dry desert is in Köppen's BWh climate category. It is a Low Latitude climate. The Bstands for Dry Desert climates. All months have average temperatures over 64° F (18° C). The Wstands for desert climate. Finally, the hstands for dry and hot, with average annual temperatures over 64° F (18° C). I guess they're trying to tell us its hot, hot out there.

The description of this awesome biome climate is quite odd, but also as it is odd, it is also very interesting.

Dry Desert climates are formed by high-pressure zones in which cold air descends. Then the descending air becomes warm but, instead of releasing rain, the heat from the ground evaporates the water before it can come down as rain. The ground is super hot because the sun's rays beat down on it directly overhead. Not a lot of atmosphere to protect it from radiant energy.

By the way, approximately 1 in. (.25 cm) of rain falls in dry deserts per year. The average annual temperature of these miles of hot sand is 64° F (18° C).

The latitude range is 15-28° north and south of the equator. Their global range covers about 1/5 of the earth, including the world's great deserts: Sahara, Sonora, Thar, Kalahari and the Great Australian.

Plants of the Dry Desert have adapted to the lack of water by using dew for moisture and taking in water through their leaves and stems.


All the animals from the desert have adapted with the climate by, they have learned to pee with out using water

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Tropical rainforest

The dry desert is in Köppen's BWh climate category. It is a Low Latitude climate. The Bstands for Dry Desert climates. All months have average temperatures over 64° F (18° C). The Wstands for desert climate. Finally, the hstands for dry and hot, with average annual temperatures over 64° F (18° C). I guess they're trying to tell us its hot, hot out there.

The description of this awesome biome climate is quite odd, but also as it is odd, it is also very interesting.

Dry Desert climates are formed by high-pressure zones in which cold air descends. Then the descending air becomes warm but, instead of releasing rain, the heat from the ground evaporates the water before it can come down as rain. The ground is super hot because the sun's rays beat down on it directly overhead. Not a lot of atmosphere to protect it from radiant energy.

By the way, approximately 1 in. (.25 cm) of rain falls in dry deserts per year. The average annual temperature of these miles of hot sand is 64° F (18° C).

The latitude range is 15-28° north and south of the equator. Their global range covers about 1/5 of the earth, including the world's great deserts: Sahara, Sonora, Thar, Kalahari and the Great Australian.

Plants of the Dry Desert have adapted to the lack of water by using dew for moisture and taking in water through their leaves and stems.

Many species of animal life can be found in the rain forest. Common characteristics found among mammals and birds (and reptiles and amphibians, too) include adaptations to a life in the trees, such as the prehensile tails of New World monkeys. Other characteristics are bright colors and sharp patterns, loud vocalizations, and diets heavy on fruits.

Insects make up the largest single group of animals that live in tropical forests. They include brightly colored butterflies, mosquitoes, camouflaged stick insects, and huge colonies of ants.

The Amazon river basin rainforest contains a wider variety of plant and animal life than any other biome in the world. The second largest population of plant and animal life can be found in scattered locations and islands of Southeast Asia. The lowest variety can be found in Africa. There may be 40 to 100 different species in 2.5 acres ( 1 hectare) of a tropical rain forest.

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Fresh water

Climate

Freshwater biomes are found all around the world. They have many seasons. A single pond during the summer season could be up to 39 degrees Fahrenheit on the bottom and 72 degrees Fahrenheit on the top. This same pond could be 39 degrees Fahrenheit on the bottom and 32 degrees Fahrenheit on top in the winter season. The climates usually average 39 degrees Fahrenheit to 70 degrees Fahrenheit

Animals

  1. Freshwater rivers are often home a wide variety of species from insects, to amphibians, reptiles, fish, birds and even mammals. Turtles, ducks, otters, crocodiles, catfish, dragonfly and crabs can be found in rivers all around the world, and the Amazon river is even home to the rare and pink, freshwater dolphin.

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Marine

Animals

The marine biome covers three fourths of the earth and there are hundreds of different fish to cover each square foot of it. The main kinds of animals in the sea are whales, dolphins, sharks, and seals which are some of the most popular kinds of sea mammals. Other kinds of animals and fish that live in the sea are the walrus, star fish, eel, crabs, jelly fish, and fresh and salt water fish, but this is just a small list compared to the many different kinds of fish that inhabit the marine biome. In general these fish have about five different adaptations. These adaptations include sleek bodies to cut down on friction when swimming through the water, gills to allow them to breath underwater, eyes on the sides of their heads so they can see enemies coming, fins to help them swim faster, and they have color coded skin to help them hide from their enemies. Most of the small fish are herbivores and the larger ones are carnivores

climate and locaction

When it comes to the marine biome, climate doesn't really effect it much. It is warmer as you get closer to the equator and it is colder as you get closer to the poles. Even though the climate doesn't effect the marine biome, the marine effects the mainlands climate a lot. Its currents affect all the coastal areas. Another way the marine affects the coastal areas are the winds, depending upon the temperature of the water, the winds usually match that temperature.

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