IPS Final Exam

Lab 1

Reaction in a Bag

I. Purpose: To Record and observe what occurs when several chemical substances are combined and to understand the reactions of the chemicals

II. Procedure:

1. Observe and record appearance of solid A and B

2. Waft liquid and record odor in data table

3. Lay opened plastic bag on table

4. Out 1 spoonful of Solid A in bag

5. Put ½ spoonful of solid B into other corner of bag

6. Keep bad flat, pour 5ml of red liquid in bag

7. Seal bag and mix

8. Observe and touch bag

III. Materials:

A and B

Spoons (2)

G. Cyl.

Gatorade

Bag

Water



2 tbsp calcium chloride

2 Tbsp. baking soda

Phenol Red



IV. Lab Safety

Apron

Goggles

V. Data and/ or Observations

CHEMICAL

DESCRIPTION


Solid A (Calcium Chloride)

White, Chunky, Grated Cheesy look


Solid B (Baking Soda)

White, Powdery, Floury, Sandy, Snowy


Red Liquid (Phenol Red)

No oder, red, water




VII. Conclusion:

The purpose of the Reaction in a Bag lab was to record and observe what occurs when several chemical substances are combines and to understand the reactions of the chemicals. In the lab we mixed a substance A and a substance B in a bag with a red liquid. It caused the liquid to turn yellow and get warm. The bag then started to expand from the reaction. An issue I had is when I put the B powder in, a little of it mixed in with the A, and the bag later exploded. I have come to the conclusion that A and a liquid makes B dissolve, which produces gases and a color change. A also makes the bag warmer. I have to this conclusion because during the lab the data has shown that when A and B in are in a liquid, they both dissolve and react. Just A and a liquid makes the bag warm, and Just B makes creates and endothermic reaction.



Red Liquid:

Phenol Red

-Used as pH indicator

Acid= Yellow

Base= Pink


pH scale


  • Measures acidity
  • from 0-14
  • Lemon- 1.5
  • Tums- 10

A= Calcium Chloride

Acidic

Hydrotropic absorbs water

Used in canned vegetables

Electrolyte

Sports drinks

pickles


A= Baking Soda


  • Basic
  • 8.45 pH
  • Uses:
  • Baking
  • Laundry Detergent
  • Toothpaste







Lab 2- Heating Baking Soda

Lab 2- Heating Baking Soda

Matias Litewka

9/9/13

Lab 1.2

I. Purpose: To observe and record the reaction that occurs when baking soda is heated

II. Procedure:

Water

1. Fill container with water

2. Invert bottle without air bubble

3. Insert test tube in holder

4. Insert rubber tubing

5. Insert stopper

6. Check setup with teacher

7. Light burner

8. Blue dot questions

9. Remove rubber tube THEN

10. Cap burner


1. Put 0.5cm of baking soda in both hot and cool test tubes

2. Pour tea in both test tubes until 1/4th filled

3. Stir (With glass stirring rod)

4. Compare color

5. Clean

III. Materials:

· Tea

· Water

· Baking Soda

· Test Tubes (2)

· Tube (Rubber)

· Bruner

· Stopper

· Peg Board

· Stirring Rod

· Cap

· Match

· Rubber Band

· Container

· Bottle

· Glass Bend

· Clamp

IV. Lab Safety:

Goggles

Apron

V. Data and/or Observations

At the bottom of the test tube, the baking soda is fizzly

At the top of the test tube, water is forming and going into the glass bend

All the water came out of the baking soda

The gas came from the baking soda

The tube with the hot baking soda is completely dissolved, therefore clearer than the other one.

The two powders are not the same because one dissolved in tea and one didn’t.

VI. Experimental Errors: Three possible errors are that the rubber tubing could have a small hole in it, the test tubes could not have been properly cleaned by period 4, and the tea could have been mixed with lemon tea in the factory (Lemon + Baking Soda)

VII. Conclusion: I conclude that I don’t think the data we got was correct because all the evidence points to the Baking Soda reacting when heated and releasing the water at the top as well as the gas in the bottle, but I don’t understand how this could happen. Also, the Baking Soda was becoming fizzly, so maybe the gas was escaping from this point. More evidence pointing towards the baking soda was that the water was coming from the test tube and floating upwards, so it was probably coming from the same place. The Baking Soda also changed afterwards, becoming more chunky and dry.

VIII. Extra Question(s):

Is the amount of condensation that forms at the top of the heated test tube more or less than the amount of baking soda being heated? Explain your answer:

The amount of condensation that forms at the top of the test tube is less than the amount of baking soda being heated because as it comes from the soda it has to fit in the larger amount of powder.


Moisture came from water touching side of test tube which is cooler


Control Group: Unheated

Experimental Group: Heated

Indicator: Tea

Variable: SOmething you try to measure

Independent Variable: Causes change in dependent temperature

Control Factors:

Tea

Baking Soda amount

Same amt of tea

Same stirring time

Same size test tube



Safety Quiz Notes

For Every Lab:



  1. Goggles must be kepy over your eyes until Mr. Leeds says to put them away even if you are already finished and cleaned up
  2. Report ALL accidents to Mr. Leeds immediately
  3. Try your best to use common sense
In case of emergency:



  • Nurse; ext: 2828

Safety equipment in classroom



  • Fire extinguisher
  • Fire blanket
  • Eye wash/ shower

Chemicals



  • Never taste chemicals
  • Always waft LIQUIDS to detect odor
  • NEVER WAFT SOLIDS/ POWDERS
  • Avoid touching chemicals
  • Always wash hands with soap and water after lab
  • If chemicals touch skin: flush skin with water for 1 minute AND notify Mr. Leeds


Glass


  • Hot and cold glass look the same
  • Never use chipped or broken glass
  • Tell Mr. Leeds and dispose of broken glass in proper trash
  • Never use force to remove or insert trash

Alcohol Burner


  • Roll up sleeves, put UP long hair, NOT just pull back (or u cannot do lab)
  • Never walk away from a lit burner
  • Never point the open end of a hot test tube at yourself or someone else's face
  • Make sure burner is capped and flame is out when done

End of Experiment



  • CLEAN- UP AREA & MATERIALS COMPLETELY (Or you LOSE points)
  • Make certain that burner is out of one was used
  • Keep goggles on (over eyes) until Mr. Leeds says to put them away



Lab 1.1 Heating Baking Soda
Exp. 1.1 Heating Baking Soda
Scholar Reaction In The Bag Inquiry Demonstration and Lab Activity

I. Purpose: To use displacements of water method to determine the volume of dry sand that is sand and air space

II. Procedure:

1. Pour sand in Yellow cyl. w/ funnel

2. Fill clear cylinder w/ 16 or 17 cm3

3. Pour sand into water with funnel

4. Record volume of sand + water (from lvl of water

5. Pour wet sand into bucket

III. Materials:

1. 2 Grad cyl

2. Funnel

3. Sand

4. Water

5. bucket

IV. Lab Safety: Don’t eat the sand

V. Data and/or Observations:

Look at the Report


VI. Experimental Errors:

If the previous group didn’t dry the water well, the dry sand volume as well as the air volume would have been wrong. If the test tube had a small chip on the inside, it would change the volume.

VII. Conclusion: The purpose of the volume lab was to use displacements of water method to determine the volume of dry sand that is sand and air space. We put sand in a grad cylinder to measure the volume along with the air spaces in between. We then filled the cylinder with water to use displacement to fill in the holes and find out how much sand as well as air there actually is. I conclude that sand’s volume is really much less than what appears, and despite not completely visible, the air spaces take up a lot of space. I also conclude that the amount of sand doesn’t change the fraction of air in it. I have come to this conclusion because I have checked with other groups with differing amounts, and it stays at around 40% for all of them despite them having different amounts.

VIII. Extra Question(s): What was the purpose of giving each group a different amount of dry sand in the beginning in the lab?

The purpose of giving each group a different amount is to see the differing ratios in the sand and see if more sand means more air or less air in between the sand. I concluded that it does not affect anything.


Lab 4

. Purpose To discern if you mass the same object repeatedly will the mass remain the same. Also, to discern how different the masses of two objects must be for our balance to detect the difference.

II. Procedure:

Part A

· Clean pan/ zero balance

· Mass penny and stopper alternately 4x

· Zero balance b/w each object

· Do not share data

Part B

1. Zero Balance

2. Cut out 20x20 square

3. Mass out large square

4. Calculate mass of small square (/400)

5. Figure out how many square b/w 0.03/ 0.07

6. Cut out large 10 groups of squares

7. Mass stopper, leave in pan, don’t move riders

8. Add groups of squares one at a time a mass

III. Materials:

· Stopper

· Balance

· Scissors

· Penny

· Graph Paper

IV. Lab Safety:

Don’t run with scissors

Don’t do swordfights with scissors

V. Data and/or Observations:


Look at report


Experimental Errors:

1. Someone before us could have switched pans

2. The penny could have been chipped

VII. Conclusion: The purpose of the mass lab was to discern if you mass the same object repeatedly will the mass remain the same. We measured the penny and stopper 2 times each, then Nikki measured it twice each and we compared. I have come to this conclusion as every time we measured the penny and stopper we got different results every time, even if the same person measured.

Part B:

The purpose of this lab was to discern how different the masses of two objects must be for our balance to detect the difference. We then cut out a 20x20 paper square, massed it, divided it by 400 and cut it into 10 strips of 4 and massed. Cut out a 20x20 paper square, massed it, divided it by 400 and cut it into 10 strips of 4 and massed. I conclude that each time the mass changes and there must be a difference of about 0.007 g to see a difference in mass on our balance. Also, on average each change in mass for the paper strips was about 0.0084 g away. I have to this conclusion as all the massings added divided by 10=0.0084, so each strip weighs that much. I then applied the formula and got a sensitivity of 0.0074.

Part A data

Our balance got the same result to the ones place.

Part B data:

There is no pattern, the answers are scattered and the order is random.


Lab 2.1

Purpose: To discern if the mass of the salt when salt dissolves in H2O

II. Procedure:

1. Clear pan/ zero balance

2. DRY CAP then mass cap

3. Add 2g to balance

4. Add salt until balanced

5. Fill bottle 2/3 with H2O

6. Mass bottle with water + cap w/salt together but not change

7. Pour salt into bottle

8. Shake bottle until all salt dissolves

9. Mass bottle with cap on

10. Calculate ∆M

III. Materials:

1. Salt

2. Bottle

3. Cap

4. Water

5. Balance

6. Scooper

IV. Lab Safety:

Lab

Mi(g)

MMf(g)

∆M (g)

1

18.000

17.965

0.035

2

17.036

17.034

0.002

V. Data and/or Observations

VI. Experimental Errors:

1. Clean pan after M

2. Outside bottle is wet

VII. Conclusion:

The purpose of the 2.1 lab was to see of the mass of salt changed when it is in solid rock form or when it is dissolved in a solution with water. During the lab we massed the cap and salt by itself, and then the water with the salt to see if the mass changed after we shook the cylinder. We saw that it took a very short amount of time for the salt to dissolve into the water. We also saw that water was extremely heavy compared to a lot of the things we massed this year, even if those things are solids. I have to the conclusion that the mass of salt does not change at all even when it is dissolved or in solid form. I have come to this conclusion as I observed that the sensitivity of the balance is 0.015 grams. Four groups got changes of 0, while three others were within the sensitivity. Ours, 8 is outside the sensitivity but I massed it and got 0.002 changedand my partner got -0.025 change but we went with my partner’s number because I am somewhat mistake prone.


Lab 2.5

Purpose: Discern if there is a difference in mass when copper and sulfur are heated

Procedure

1. Zero balance/ clean pan

2. Add 2g

3. Add copper until balanced

4. Mass paper

5. Add 1g

6. Add sulfur until even

7. Mass T.tube+ latex+ rubber band

8. Mass all

9. Put copper+ sulfur in test tube

10. Heat the tube

11. Cap flame

12. Find ∆M

Materials:

1. Test tube

2. Band

3. Latex Sheet

4. Burner

5. Balance

6. Sulfur

7. Copper

8. Pegboard

9. Matches

Mass of Test tube

33.349


Mass of Test Tube/ steel/ band/ copper/ sulfur unheated

36.331


Mass (initial) of copper sulfur

2.982


Mass of t.tube sheet/ band

36.312


Mass (final) of copper + sulfur

2.963


∆M

-0.019


Experimental Errors:

1. The latex cap could have had a hole in it, releasing all the smoke and odor

2. The paper could have had a hole in it, so when the sulfur was poured some of it could have fallen out.

Conclusion:

The purpose of the Copper + Sulfur Heat Reaction Lab was to discern if there is an increase or decrease in mass when copper and sulfur are heated. During the lab we massed Copper and Sulfur before they were heated. We then took the materials, mixed them, heated them, and massed them. There was a reaction where the sulfur turned into a liquid, the copper became black, and a yellow smoke was released. I have come to the conclusion that there is either a decrease or no change in mass. I have come to this conclusion as I observed that 4/8 groups possible got no change as they were within the 0.015 sensitivity of the balance and the other 4 all got decreases in mass.


Lab 3.1

Purpose: To use displacements of water method to determine the volume of dry sand that is sand and air space

II. Procedure:

1. Pour sand in Yellow cyl. w/ funnel

2. Fill clear cylinder w/ 16 or 17 cm3

3. Pour sand into water with funnel

4. Record volume of sand + water (from lvl of water

5. Pour wet sand into bucket

III. Materials:

1. 2 Grad cyl

2. Funnel

3. Sand

4. Water

5. bucket

IV. Lab Safety: Don’t eat the sand

V. Data and/or Observations:

Item

Volume


V. OF DRY SAND

31 cm


V OF WATER

17 cm


V OF SAND+ WATER

36.4 cm


V OF SAND

14.4 cm


V OF AIRSPACE

11.5 ml


Fraction of Sand that is Air

0.39/1


% of Sand that is Air

39%


VI. Experimental Errors:

If the previous group didn’t dry the water well, the dry sand volume as well as the air volume would have been wrong. If the test tube had a small chip on the inside, it would change the volume.

VII. Conclusion: The purpose of the volume lab was to use displacements of water method to determine the volume of dry sand that is sand and air space. We put sand in a grad cylinder to measure the volume along with the air spaces in between. We then filled the cylinder with water to use displacement to fill in the holes and find out how much sand as well as air there actually is. I conclude that sand’s volume is really much less than what appears, and despite not completely visible, the air spaces take up a lot of space. I also conclude that the amount of sand doesn’t change the fraction of air in it. I have come to this conclusion because I have checked with other groups with differing amounts, and it stays at around 40% for all of them despite them having different amounts.

VIII. Extra Question(s): What was the purpose of giving each group a different amount of dry sand in the beginning in the lab?

The purpose of giving each group a different amount is to see the differing ratios in the sand and see if more sand means more air or less air in between the sand. I concluded that it does not affect anything.

Lab 3.2

Purpose: The purpose of this lab was to discern if the mass of a 1cm3 object will depend on its shape or on the substance itself

Procedure:

1. Use H2O displacement theory to find volume of long cylinder

2. Answer Blue dot 1

3. Zero balance/ clean pan

4. Mass 3 long cylinders

5. Mass short cylinder

6. Mass brass cylinder

7. Answer blue dots 2, 4, 6, and 7

Materials:

1. Balance

2. 3 aluminum cylinders

3. Brass Cylinder

4. Water

5. Container

6. Short cylinder

Safety:

1. None

Data:

Object

Mass (g)

Volume (cm3)


1st long cylinder

2.657

1.00


2nd long cylinder

2.657

1.00


3rd long cylinder

2.683

1.00


Short Cylinder

2.810

1.00


Brass Cylinder

8.571

1.00


BQ’s

1. I expect the mass to be the same as long as the volume and material is equal.

2. The mass of the long aluminum cylinder would be equal to the short and wide cylinder.

4. You could halve the number to create the calculation to find the mass of 1cm3

6. The shape of a piece does not affect the mass.

7. A brass cylinder cannot have the same mass and volume as the aluminum one as it is much denser than aluminum.

Conclusion:

The purpose of this lab was to discern if the mass of a 1cm3 object would depend on its shape or on the substance itself. During the lab we massed different shaped objects, but all with the same volume and all but one with the same substance. I have come to the conclusion that there is little change in mass if the density and volume are equal. There is still change however, and I think that it is because depending on where the weight from the item is being rested, the balance picks up different readings. I have come to this conclusion as I have observed that the 3 long cylinders do not change in mass, but the short one has a change beyond the sensi


Lab 3.3

Purpose: To discern if the mass of ice will increase, decrease or stay the same when melted

Procedure:

1. Clean pan/ cero balance

2. Dry bottle/ cap

3. Mass bottle + cap

4. Put ice in container

5. Melt ice

6. Mass water

Materials:

· Bottle

· Cap

· Ice

· Balance

Mass of bottle/cap

5.395g, 5.395g

M. of bottle/ cap/ ice

6.638g, 6.392g

Mi of ice

1.243g, 0.997g

Mass of bottle/ cap/ water

6.631g, 6.392g

Mf. Of water

1.236g, 0.997g

∆M

-0.007g, 0.000g

Experimental Errors:

1. There could have been a small piece of ice left in the container, but since it is clear it would not have been seen.

2. Some of the water could have evaporated if there was a small hole or opening in the cap.

Conclusion:

The purpose of this lab was to discern if the mass of ice will increase, decrease or stay the same when melted. During the lab we massed ice and put it to melt on the windowsill. We then massed the water and looked for a change in the mass. I have come to the conclusion that there is no change. I have come to this conclusion as the data has shown that six times groups got no change in mass, Also, another five times groups got within the balance’s sensitivity to zero. Therefore, 11 out of 16 possible got no change.


Lab 3.5

Purpose: To utilize density to discern if three metal objects are made of the same substance.

Procedure:

1. Analyze cubes

2. Clean pan/ zero balance

3. Mass on balance

4. Answer blue dot 1

5. Compare results

6. Answer blue dot 2

7. Measure dimensions

8. Find volume + mass of irregular object (rock)

9. Calculate density of rock

Materials:

1. Rock

2. 3 Metal objects

3. G. cyl

4. Water

5. Ruler

6. Balance

Experimental Errors:

1. One of the cubes could have had chips in it, causing the mass and therefore density to go down, but keeping volume equal, as displacement of water is not used.

2. As the rock is relatively large for the grad. Cyl. When it was dropped in the water some could have splashed out, affecting the volume.

Data:

Object

Length (cm)

Width (cm)

Height (cm)

Cube 1

1.28

1.28

1.28

Cube 2

1.28

1.28

1.28

Slab

7.5

2.5

0.6

Object

Volume (cm3)

Mass (g)

Density (g/cm3)

Cube 1

2.10

5.801

2.76

Cube 2

2.10

16.091

9.71

Slab

11.25

33.081

2.94

Rock

2.5

7.71

5.08

Conclusion:

The purpose of the Density of a Solid lab was to utilize density to discern if three metal objects are made of the same substance. During the lab we measured the volumes, masses, and densities of different solids and compared them. I have come to the conclusion that Cube 1 has a density of about 3.00 g/cm3, cube 2 has a density of about 9.25 g/cm3, and the slab about 2.9 g/cm3. I have come to this conclusion as all of the densities for cube 1 were within 0.3 g/cm3. Also, cube 2 had all of the results within 0.3 g/cm3 except for one, which was 9.71, so not too far. The slab had all results within 2.9 g/cm3, and most within 0.2 g/cm3.



Lab 3.7

Purpose: To produce and collect a gas to accurately discern the density of a gas.

II. Procedure:

1. Clean pan/ zero balance

2. Find vol. of water

3. Put 5cm3 of water

4. Break alka seltzer in two

5. Mass t.tube w/ H2O, foil, tablet, rubber band

6. Set up apparatus (NO AIR BUBBLE)

7. Have Mr. Leeds check setup

8. Put tablet in t.tube, stopper t.tube, insert tubing

9. Remove tubing from bottle

10. Remove Stopper

11. Invert bottle over container

12. Find volume of H2O left in bottle

13. Mas t.tube with H2O left in bottle

14. Mass t.tube with H2O, foil, and rubber band

15. Clean up

III. Materials:

1. Water

2. Foil

3. Alka- Seltzer

4. T. Tube

5. Stopper

6. Glass bend

7. Rubber tubing

8. Container

9. Peg board

10. Bottle

11. Clamp

12. Grad Cylinders

IV. Lab Safety:

Always wear goggles when working with gasses

V. Data:

Mi (g)

Mf (g)

∆M (g)

Vi cm3

Vi cm3

∆V

D (g/cm3)

39.296

38.612

-0.684

545

260

-285

2.4

VI. Experimental Errors

1. The tablet could have been handled with bare hands, taking away some of the powder.

2. The stopper could have been inserted after the rubber tubing was.

VII. Conclusion:

The purpose of the density of a gas lab was to produce and collect a gas to accurately discern the density of a gas. During the lab we made a setup similar to one really early in the year, then we put alka seltzer in water and waited. The air pushed out the water in the bottle and we were able to mass a relatively pure sample of alka seltzer gas. I have come to the conclusion that the gas is at a density of around 2.3 x 10-3 g/cm3. I have come to the conclusion as 3/8 groups got density of around 2.1 x 10-3 g/cm3, another 3/8 got 2.4, one got 2.3, and one got 2.5.


Test Info #1

  • Know how to use sand chart
  • Know how to use unit cubes, lwh
  • Know kilos to pounds conversion, 1 kilo= 2.2 lb
  • Know how to find sensitivity ∆m/ # of yes
  • Know what should be measured by volume, other, or mass
  • Know what should be count, mass, or volume
  • Know to measure lines, round to hundredths
  • Know to measure grad cylinder, estimate to one place smaller than shown on cal
  • Sensitivity of balance is 1.5g-2g
  • Further than that, student error probable

Test info #2

  • Error in Mass of a Gas: Cap not fully on, Gas could have escaped, losing mass


  • Error in Mass of copper/ sulfur: Hole in wax sheet, gas escapes, letting out yellow gas and losing mass

  • Error in Ice and Water: Condensation on the outside of the bottle, mass added in Mf not there in Mi

  • Know the Law of conservation of mass, in closed system, mass stays same

  • Know copper sulfur calculations

  • Know what happens when salt and water are together and left out
  • Water gets evaporated, if water still, salt stays

  • Know histograms

  • Almost always 0.2 interval
  • If on the line, move to the right
  • Shade in boxes




Test #3

  • Know how to calculate density
  • Know how to find density of gas (process)
  • Know how to find density of liquid (process)
  • Know how to find density of solid Density=M/V
  • Know how to find volume of room
  • Know how to use scientific formula x*10*
  • Know that Mi-Mf for gas mass
  • both mass and liquid found in g. cal because it is more accurate and no transfer necessary
  • When finding liquid density, Keeping it in g. cyl most accurate method
  • If tubing is in mouth of bottle, gas will dissolve in water
  • tubing in bottle mouth, decrease in volume and density
  • When calculating rock density, mass before volume because dis. of water adds weight
  • Alka seltzer releases CO2
  • No foil for Mf= Gas mass increase, density increase