Language Arts 7th Grade

What we've learned this year! By Izzy Latiolais

Chapter 1:The Sentence(Sentence,Subject,Simple Subject,Predicate,Simple Predicate, or Verb,Compound Subject,Compound Verb)

  • Sentence-is a word or word group that contains a subject and a verb and that expresses a complete thought.
  • Subject-tells whom or what the sentence is talking about.
  • Simple Subject-is the main word or word group that tells whom or what the sentence is about.
  • Predicate-of a sentence tells something about the subject.
  • Simple Predicate,Verb-is the main word or word group that tells something about the subject.
  • Compound Subject-consist of 2 or more subjects that are joined by conjunction and that have the same verb.
  • Compound Verb-consist of 2 or more verbs that are joined by conjunction and that have that same subject.
  • declarative sentence-makes a statement and ends with a period.
  • imperative sentence-gives a command or makes a request.
  • interrogative sentence-asks a question and ends with a question mark.
  • exclamatory sentence-shows excitement or express strong feeling and ends with an exclamation point


Sentence Example:


  • She won a prize for her book.
  • The girls on the team were all good students.
  • The four students arrived early.
  • The phone rang.
  • The pilot broke the sound barrier.
  • Kathy is riding the Ferris wheel.
  • Paris and London remain favorite tourist attractions.
  • The team played well but lost the game anyway.
  • Amy Tan was born in Oakland,California.
  • Be quiet during the play.(Command)
  • (YOU)Be quiet during the play.
  • When did you return from your camping trip?

Chapter 2:Part of Speech(noun,pronoun,adjective)

  • noun-is a word or word group that is used to name a person,place,thing,or an idea.
  • compound noun-is a single noun made up of 2 or more words used together.
  • proper noun-names a particular place,person,thing,or idea.
  • common noun-names any one group of persons,place,things,or ideas and is generally not capitalized.
  • concrete noun-names a person,place,or thing that can be perceived by one of the senses.
  • abstract noun-names an idea,feeling,quality,or characteristic.
  • collective noun-is a word that names a group.
  • pronoun-is a word that is used in place of one or more nouns or pronouns.
  • personal pronoun-refers to the one speaking or the one spoken about.
  • reflexive pronoun-refers to the subject and is necessary to the meaning of the sentence.
  • demonstrative pronoun-points out a person,place,thing,or idea.
  • interrogative pronoun-introduces a question
  • indefinite pronoun-refers to a person,place,thing,or an idea that may or may not be specifically named.
  • relative pronoun-introduces a subordinate clause
  • adjective-is a word that is used to modify a noun or a pronoun
  • demonstrative adjectives-modify a noun or a pronoun


Sentence Examples:


  • Ask dad if he has done his work.
  • Tera enjoyed herself at the party.
  • I myself cooked the delicious dinner.
  • This is the book I bought for my sister.
  • Who wrote Barrio Boy?
  • Both of the girls forgot their lines.
  • Exercise is something that many people enjoy.
  • The box is empty.
  • A frog croaked.
  • Where is the orange.

Chapter 3:(Verb,Adverb,Preposition,Conjunction,Interjection)

  • verb-is a word that expresses action or a state of being.
  • action verb-is a verb that expresses either physical or mental activity.
  • linking verb-is a verb that expresses a state of being.
  • helping verb-helps the main verb express action or a state of being.
  • transitive verb-is a verb that express an action directed toward a person,place,thing,or an idea.
  • intransitive verb-expresses action without the action passing to a receiver or an object.
  • adverb-is a word that modifies a verb,an adj, or another adv.
  • preposition-is a word that shows the relationship of a noun or pronoun to another word.
  • prepositional phrase-includes a preposition,a noun or pronoun and any modifiers of that object.
  • object of the preposition-noun or pronoun.
  • conjunction-is a word that joins words or word groups.
  • coordinating conjunction-joins words or word groups that are used in the same way.
  • correlative conjunction-are pairs of conjunctions that join words or word groups that are used in the same way.
  • interjection-is a word that expresses emotion.


Sentence Examples:


  • The holiday is usually in February.
  • Gloria plays volleyball.
  • Denzel Washington is an actor.
  • Amy looked through the telescope.
  • Kansas has been named the sunflower state.
  • They have a dog.
  • Derick greet the visitors.
  • The train stopped.
  • The sprinter ran swiftly.
  • We often study together.
  • The kite in the tree is mine.
  • Fred stood in front of us.
  • Jill or Anna.
  • Ouch! That hurt.

Chapter 4:complements (direct and indirect objects,simple compliments)

  • complement-is a word or word group that completes the meaning of a verb.
  • direct object- is a noun,pronoun,or word group that tells who or what receives the action of the verb.
  • indirect object- is a noun,pronoun,or word group that sometimes appears in the sentence containing direct objects.
  • subject complementary-is a word or word group in the predicate that identifies or describes the subject.
  • predicate nominative-a word or word group in the predicate that identifies the subject
  • predicate adjective-adjective that is in the predicate and that describes the subject

Sentence Examples:

  • Dr.Charles Drew made advances in the study of blood plasma.
  • I meet Dr.Mason.
  • The waiter gave her the bill.
  • Was the masked stranger you?
  • A dictionary is a valuable tool.
  • Cold milk taste good on hot days.

chapter 5:The Phrase (prepositional and verb phrases)

  • phrase-group of related words that is used as a single part of speech and that does not contain both a verb and its subject.
  • prepositional phrases-includes a preposition,the object of the preposition,and any modifiers of the object.
  • adjective phrase-modifies a noun or a pronoun.
  • adverb phrase-modifies a verb, an adjective, or an adverb
  • participle-verb form that can be used as an adjective.
  • present participle- end in ing.
  • past participle-usually ending in -d or -ed
  • participle phrase-consist of a participle together with its modifiers and complements.
  • infinitive phrase- consist of an infinitive together with its modifiers and complements.

Sentence Examples:

  • The wind howled.
  • Linh Phan has the lead in the school play.
  • The store with the neon sign is open.
  • The puppy is always ready for a game.
  • Chasing the cat, the dog ran down the street.
  • We skated on the frozen pond.

Chapter 6:The Clause ( Independent and Subordinate Clauses)

  • Clause-is a word group that contains a verb and its subject and that is used as a sentence or as part of a sentence.
  • Independent(main)Clause-expresses a complete thought and can stand by itself as a sentence.
  • Subordinate(dependent)clause-does not express a complete thought and can not stand by itself as a complete sentence.
  • Adjective clause-is a subordinate clause that modifies a noun or pronoun.
  • adverb clause-is a subordinate clause that modifies a verb,adjective, or adverb.

Sentence Examples:


  • My mother drove me to school.
  • If the dress is to long,we will hem it.
  • A blue flower.
  • Because Jason was brave, he battled a fierce dragon.

Chapter 7Kind of Sentence structure:(simple,compound,complex,and compound-complex)

  • Simple Sentence-contains 1 independent clause and no subordinate.
  • Compound Sentence-contains 2 or more independent and no subordinate.
  • Complex Sentence-contains 1 independent and at least 2 subordinate clauses.
  • Compound Complex-contains 2 or more independent and at least 1 subordinate.


Sentences:


  • A good rain will help the farmers.
  • Leroy wrote about his cousin from Jamaica
  • When I hear classical music,I think of Aunt Sofia.
  • The band began to play, and Clarissa was pulled onto the floor for a dance That was starting.

Chapter 8 Agreement:(Subject,verb,pronoun,and antecedent)

  • When a word refers to 1 person,place,thing or idea, it is singular. when a word refers to more than one it is plural.
  • A verb should agree in number with its subject.


  • Singular subjects take singular verbs
  • Plural subjects take plural verbs.
  • The number of a subject is not changed by a phrase following the sentence.
  • Indefinite pronouns all, any, more, most, none, and some may be either singular or plural, depending on their meaning in the sentence.
  • Subject joined by and usually takes a plural verb.
  • Singular subjects joined by or or nor take a singular verb.
  • When a singular subject and a plural subject are joined by or or nor, the verb agrees with the subject near the verb
  • A collective noun may be either singular or plural, depending on its meaning in a sentence.
  • When the subject follows the verb, find the subject and make sure that the verb agrees with it.
  • Some nouns that are plural in form take singular verb.
  • An expression of an amount may be singular or plural,depending on how it is used.
  • Even when plural in form, the title of a creative work the name of an organization, or the name of a country or city generally takes a singular verb
  • A pronoun should agree in number and gender with its antecedent.


Sentence


  • The lightning fills the sky.
  • Cheetahs run fast.
  • The motor is running.
  • The hero of those folk tales is Coyote.
  • Neither of these papayas is ripe.
  • Many of them keep dogs as pets.
  • All of the fruit is ripe.
  • Our dog and cat get baths in the summer.
  • The chief geologist or her assistant.
  • Either mice or squirrels are living in our attic.
  • Where was the cat?

Chapter 9 Using Verbs correctly:(principal,regular,irregular,tense,and voice)

  • The principal part of a verb are the base form, the present form, the past, and the past participle.
  • A regular verb forms its past and past participle by adding -d or -ed to the base form.
  • Do not change needlessly from one tense to another.



Sentences
  • He draws excellent pictures.
  • Our street used to be quieter.

Chapter 10 Using Pronouns Correctly (Nominative and Objective Case Forms)

  • Case is the form that a noun or pronoun takes to show its relationship to other words in a sentence
  • Subject of a verb should be in the nominative case
  • predicate nominative should be in the nominative case.
  • Direct object and indirect objects should be in the objective case.
  • The object of the preposition should be in the objective case


Sentences

  • That Ming vase is very old.
  • He and I mowed lawns.
  • The members of the team are they.
  • Mom called me to the phone.
  • Before us lay rows of green cornstalk.

Chapter 11 using modifiers correctly(comparison and placement)


  • Adjectives make the meaning of nouns and pronouns more specific
  • Adverbs make the meanings of verbs, adjectives, and other adverbs more specific
  • Use good for noun or pronoun
  • Well for verbs
  • Avoid using double comparison-use of both -er and more
  • Avoid using double negatives-the use of two or more negative words to express one negative idea.



Sentences


  • Andy gave a loud cheer.
  • Andy cheered loudly.
  • The weather was good
  • The trees are producing well

Chapter 12 A glossary of usage(common usage problems)

  • Glossary alphabetical listing
  • Nonstandard English is language that does not follow the rules and guidelines of standard English.
  • Standard English is language that is grammatically correct and appropriate in formal and informal situations.
  • Formal identifies usage that is appropriate in serious speaking and writing situations.
  • Informal indicates standard usage common in conversations and in everyday writings.