Language Arts 7th Grade
What we've learned this year! By Izzy Latiolais
Chapter 1:The Sentence(Sentence,Subject,Simple Subject,Predicate,Simple Predicate, or Verb,Compound Subject,Compound Verb)
- Sentence-is a word or word group that contains a subject and a verb and that expresses a complete thought.
- Subject-tells whom or what the sentence is talking about.
- Simple Subject-is the main word or word group that tells whom or what the sentence is about.
- Predicate-of a sentence tells something about the subject.
- Simple Predicate,Verb-is the main word or word group that tells something about the subject.
- Compound Subject-consist of 2 or more subjects that are joined by conjunction and that have the same verb.
- Compound Verb-consist of 2 or more verbs that are joined by conjunction and that have that same subject.
- declarative sentence-makes a statement and ends with a period.
- imperative sentence-gives a command or makes a request.
- interrogative sentence-asks a question and ends with a question mark.
- exclamatory sentence-shows excitement or express strong feeling and ends with an exclamation point
- She won a prize for her book.
- The girls on the team were all good students.
- The four students arrived early.
- The phone rang.
- The pilot broke the sound barrier.
- Kathy is riding the Ferris wheel.
- Paris and London remain favorite tourist attractions.
- The team played well but lost the game anyway.
- Amy Tan was born in Oakland,California.
- Be quiet during the play.(Command)
- (YOU)Be quiet during the play.
- When did you return from your camping trip?
Chapter 2:Part of Speech(noun,pronoun,adjective)
- noun-is a word or word group that is used to name a person,place,thing,or an idea.
- compound noun-is a single noun made up of 2 or more words used together.
- proper noun-names a particular place,person,thing,or idea.
- common noun-names any one group of persons,place,things,or ideas and is generally not capitalized.
- concrete noun-names a person,place,or thing that can be perceived by one of the senses.
- abstract noun-names an idea,feeling,quality,or characteristic.
- collective noun-is a word that names a group.
- pronoun-is a word that is used in place of one or more nouns or pronouns.
- personal pronoun-refers to the one speaking or the one spoken about.
- reflexive pronoun-refers to the subject and is necessary to the meaning of the sentence.
- demonstrative pronoun-points out a person,place,thing,or idea.
- interrogative pronoun-introduces a question
- indefinite pronoun-refers to a person,place,thing,or an idea that may or may not be specifically named.
- relative pronoun-introduces a subordinate clause
- adjective-is a word that is used to modify a noun or a pronoun
- demonstrative adjectives-modify a noun or a pronoun
- Ask dad if he has done his work.
- Tera enjoyed herself at the party.
- I myself cooked the delicious dinner.
- This is the book I bought for my sister.
- Who wrote Barrio Boy?
- Both of the girls forgot their lines.
- Exercise is something that many people enjoy.
- The box is empty.
- A frog croaked.
- Where is the orange.
- verb-is a word that expresses action or a state of being.
- action verb-is a verb that expresses either physical or mental activity.
- linking verb-is a verb that expresses a state of being.
- helping verb-helps the main verb express action or a state of being.
- transitive verb-is a verb that express an action directed toward a person,place,thing,or an idea.
- intransitive verb-expresses action without the action passing to a receiver or an object.
- adverb-is a word that modifies a verb,an adj, or another adv.
- preposition-is a word that shows the relationship of a noun or pronoun to another word.
- prepositional phrase-includes a preposition,a noun or pronoun and any modifiers of that object.
- object of the preposition-noun or pronoun.
- conjunction-is a word that joins words or word groups.
- coordinating conjunction-joins words or word groups that are used in the same way.
- correlative conjunction-are pairs of conjunctions that join words or word groups that are used in the same way.
- interjection-is a word that expresses emotion.
- The holiday is usually in February.
- Gloria plays volleyball.
- Denzel Washington is an actor.
- Amy looked through the telescope.
- Kansas has been named the sunflower state.
- They have a dog.
- Derick greet the visitors.
- The train stopped.
- The sprinter ran swiftly.
- We often study together.
- The kite in the tree is mine.
- Fred stood in front of us.
- Jill or Anna.
- Ouch! That hurt.
Chapter 4:complements (direct and indirect objects,simple compliments)
- complement-is a word or word group that completes the meaning of a verb.
- direct object- is a noun,pronoun,or word group that tells who or what receives the action of the verb.
- indirect object- is a noun,pronoun,or word group that sometimes appears in the sentence containing direct objects.
- subject complementary-is a word or word group in the predicate that identifies or describes the subject.
- predicate nominative-a word or word group in the predicate that identifies the subject
- predicate adjective-adjective that is in the predicate and that describes the subject
- Dr.Charles Drew made advances in the study of blood plasma.
- I meet Dr.Mason.
- The waiter gave her the bill.
- Was the masked stranger you?
- A dictionary is a valuable tool.
- Cold milk taste good on hot days.
chapter 5:The Phrase (prepositional and verb phrases)
- phrase-group of related words that is used as a single part of speech and that does not contain both a verb and its subject.
- prepositional phrases-includes a preposition,the object of the preposition,and any modifiers of the object.
- adjective phrase-modifies a noun or a pronoun.
- adverb phrase-modifies a verb, an adjective, or an adverb
- participle-verb form that can be used as an adjective.
- present participle- end in ing.
- past participle-usually ending in -d or -ed
- participle phrase-consist of a participle together with its modifiers and complements.
- infinitive phrase- consist of an infinitive together with its modifiers and complements.
- The wind howled.
- Linh Phan has the lead in the school play.
- The store with the neon sign is open.
- The puppy is always ready for a game.
- Chasing the cat, the dog ran down the street.
- We skated on the frozen pond.
Chapter 6:The Clause ( Independent and Subordinate Clauses)
- Clause-is a word group that contains a verb and its subject and that is used as a sentence or as part of a sentence.
- Independent(main)Clause-expresses a complete thought and can stand by itself as a sentence.
- Subordinate(dependent)clause-does not express a complete thought and can not stand by itself as a complete sentence.
- Adjective clause-is a subordinate clause that modifies a noun or pronoun.
- adverb clause-is a subordinate clause that modifies a verb,adjective, or adverb.
- My mother drove me to school.
- If the dress is to long,we will hem it.
- A blue flower.
- Because Jason was brave, he battled a fierce dragon.
Chapter 7Kind of Sentence structure:(simple,compound,complex,and compound-complex)
- Simple Sentence-contains 1 independent clause and no subordinate.
- Compound Sentence-contains 2 or more independent and no subordinate.
- Complex Sentence-contains 1 independent and at least 2 subordinate clauses.
- Compound Complex-contains 2 or more independent and at least 1 subordinate.
- A good rain will help the farmers.
- Leroy wrote about his cousin from Jamaica
- When I hear classical music,I think of Aunt Sofia.
- The band began to play, and Clarissa was pulled onto the floor for a dance That was starting.
Chapter 8 Agreement:(Subject,verb,pronoun,and antecedent)
- When a word refers to 1 person,place,thing or idea, it is singular. when a word refers to more than one it is plural.
- A verb should agree in number with its subject.
- Singular subjects take singular verbs
- Plural subjects take plural verbs.
- The number of a subject is not changed by a phrase following the sentence.
- Indefinite pronouns all, any, more, most, none, and some may be either singular or plural, depending on their meaning in the sentence.
- Subject joined by and usually takes a plural verb.
- Singular subjects joined by or or nor take a singular verb.
- When a singular subject and a plural subject are joined by or or nor, the verb agrees with the subject near the verb
- A collective noun may be either singular or plural, depending on its meaning in a sentence.
- When the subject follows the verb, find the subject and make sure that the verb agrees with it.
- Some nouns that are plural in form take singular verb.
- An expression of an amount may be singular or plural,depending on how it is used.
- Even when plural in form, the title of a creative work the name of an organization, or the name of a country or city generally takes a singular verb
- A pronoun should agree in number and gender with its antecedent.
- The lightning fills the sky.
- Cheetahs run fast.
- The motor is running.
- The hero of those folk tales is Coyote.
- Neither of these papayas is ripe.
- Many of them keep dogs as pets.
- All of the fruit is ripe.
- Our dog and cat get baths in the summer.
- The chief geologist or her assistant.
- Either mice or squirrels are living in our attic.
- Where was the cat?
Chapter 9 Using Verbs correctly:(principal,regular,irregular,tense,and voice)
- The principal part of a verb are the base form, the present form, the past, and the past participle.
- A regular verb forms its past and past participle by adding -d or -ed to the base form.
- Do not change needlessly from one tense to another.
- He draws excellent pictures.
- Our street used to be quieter.
Chapter 10 Using Pronouns Correctly (Nominative and Objective Case Forms)
- Case is the form that a noun or pronoun takes to show its relationship to other words in a sentence
- Subject of a verb should be in the nominative case
- predicate nominative should be in the nominative case.
- Direct object and indirect objects should be in the objective case.
- The object of the preposition should be in the objective case
- That Ming vase is very old.
- He and I mowed lawns.
- The members of the team are they.
- Mom called me to the phone.
- Before us lay rows of green cornstalk.
Chapter 11 using modifiers correctly(comparison and placement)
- Adjectives make the meaning of nouns and pronouns more specific
- Adverbs make the meanings of verbs, adjectives, and other adverbs more specific
- Use good for noun or pronoun
- Well for verbs
- Avoid using double comparison-use of both -er and more
- Avoid using double negatives-the use of two or more negative words to express one negative idea.
- Andy gave a loud cheer.
- Andy cheered loudly.
- The weather was good
- The trees are producing well
Chapter 12 A glossary of usage(common usage problems)
- Glossary alphabetical listing
- Nonstandard English is language that does not follow the rules and guidelines of standard English.
- Standard English is language that is grammatically correct and appropriate in formal and informal situations.
- Formal identifies usage that is appropriate in serious speaking and writing situations.
- Informal indicates standard usage common in conversations and in everyday writings.