American, Haitian, and Brazilian
Until the end of the Seven Years of war in 1763 the relationship between the Mother Country and the American Colonies was mutual. Great Britain was able to gather resources like gold, silver, tobacco, and coal. The initial problem arouse after the 7 Seven Years of War was over and Great Britain began to instate taxes for to make up for the debt of war.
The conflict between the British and the American Colonists arose immediately after the French and Indian War. Within 10 years a relationship over 170 years between the colonies and the mother country was torn down. Officials in England feared that the colonial control would diminish if the colonists were allowed to keep expanding west, so they issued the Proclamation of 1763 banning westward expansion. This stirred somewhat of a trouble in the colonies, but the colonists disregarded the law. The key problem arose when Britain had a 140 million pounds worth of debt, and the prime minister Lord Grenville looked towards the colonies to help pay some of the debts. This seemed reasonable in the prime ministers perspective because the war helped the colonists gain territory, and the war was partially caused by the American Colonists. The American Colonists seemed to disagree because they believed that they should not be taxed without representation in the government. Overtime minor conflicts between the colonists and the mother country seemed to cause the American Colonists slip from the desire of reform to war. Then a series of laws were passed which led to the revolutionary war.
Benjamin Franklin sought to create a political group to represent the colonists, but that did not take place until 20 years later. He was an important individual that advocated American Colonist rights from early on because he wanted to create a unified government for the thirteen colonies called the Albany Plan of the Union.
Samuel Adams a patriot stated, “…No body can have the power to make laws over a free people, but by their own consent.” He was a leader that pushed the grievances to the revolutionary war.
King James the III
He promised the colonists things that they did not actually get. The settlers were promised by King James I in 1606, "...Of their children...shall have and enjoy all liberties, franchises, and immunities, within any of our other dominions... as if they had been abiding and born within this our realm of England (A More Perfect Union)." This statement from the king gives us a valuable look into the how the word of the King changed over time.
A wealthy Virginia planter and officer in the militia, George Washington was a prominent figure in the American Revolution. He led the army throughout the American Revolutionary war and was a great leader who made good decisions. He later became the leader of United States of America.
Friedrich Von Steuben
Friedrich Von Steuben was an important aspect to the success of the American militia because he trained the American militia to become true fighters. George Washington invited him to train the soldiers for battle. He was a Prussian military officer. When he arrived the condition of Valley Forge was terrible because of the lack of food and other resources.
Ideologies and Outline Independence
A series of acts passed over a span of about 10 years changed the relationship between the American Colonists and British from tolerating to fed-up. Political relationships and enlightenment philosophies along with other grievances provided the colonists with enough reason to rebel. Three specific laws that were passed to raise revenue infuriated colonists. The Sugar, Quartering, and Stamp Acts were English policy’s that tested the tolerance of the American Colonists The Sugar and Stamp Act were both taxes on items, whereas the Quartering Act made colonists accommodate a soldier’s needs. People began to boycott and have riots against British imports because they were taxing without representation. Samuel Adams a patriot stated, “…No body can have the power to make laws over a free people, but by their own consent.” This perspective of Samuel Adams was ultimately biased because he was a “radical” advocate of breaking free of the Parliament rule, but gives us an insight of the perspectives of the American Colonists. On the other side British Prime Minister Lord Grenville said, “If the Americans dislike it and prefer any other method of raising the money themselves…and if they choose any other mode I shall be satisfied, provided the money be raised.” This shows how the government was not set on imposing a tax as long as they received the money somehow.The American Colonists even took the patriot group farther when the developed a social rebellion group called the "Sons of Liberty” thats initiative was to get the Stamp Act repealed. The merchants vowed not to import British goods for resale risking the wellbeing of the British economy. William Pitt the Parliament leader sympathized with the some of the beliefs of the “Sons of Liberty” and said, “…The greater must rule the less; but so rule it as not to contradict the fundamental principles that are common to both.” The parliament leader William Pitt wanted to allow the colonists to have representatives in the government because he felt that this current state went against the British constitution, but the colonists did not want reform because they had the understanding that England wants complete rule over them. The parliament leader William Pitt had no choice but to repeal the Stamp Act and the Sugar Act. The English and the colonists had different perspectives on the grievances.
Strengths and Weaknesses
Treatment of Colonies
Before the Seven Years of war the British were lenient on the policy in regards to the colonies freedom to govern themselves, and settle across America, but overtime the British began to tighten the noose and enforce stricter laws. Originally the British considered the American colonists as equal to that of the British empire, but as time went on the colonies were mainly used for economic purposes. The colonists began to lose their rights of opinion in the government. The initial idea of equality among the colonists and the British can be seen when King James the 3rd says, "The settlers were promised by King James I in 1606, "...Of their children...shall have and enjoy all liberties, franchises, and immunities, within any of our other dominions... as if they had been abiding and born within this our realm of England " This held true for many years, but the British began to restrict the American colonists to settle west of the Appalachian Mountains, and treat the colony as just a tool for economic benefits. The discontent of the British ruling over the American colonies can be seen in Thomas Paine's pamphlet Common Sense when he says, “But Britain is the parent country, say some. Then the more shame upon her conduct. Even brutes do not devour their young, nor savages make war upon their families.” This negative change overtime can be attributed to the cause of the revolution as a whole. This demonstrates the change of treatment of the colonies by the mother country.
The tactics changed over the span of the American Revolution leading to the success of it. The change of the militia occurred on 1778 when a Prussian officer Baron von Steuben taught the soldiers how to fight and how to stay clean at Valley Forge. As time progressed the soldiers gained skills that would decide the outcome of the American Revolutionary war. This can be seen when a Baron von Steuben says, "I commenced operations by drafting one hundred and twenty men from the line, whom I formed into a guard for the general-in-chief. I made this guard my military school. I drilled them myself twice a day ; and to remove that English prejudice which some officers entertained, namely, that to drill a recruit was a sergeant's duty and beneath the station of an officer, I often took the musket myselt to show the men the manual exercise which I wished to introduce.” This was said by von Steuben himself and it shows how he changed the army to make the fighting tactics better and organized. Before he arrived von Steuben says, “It must be owned that they did not know much of the manual exercise, and I ought to mention the reasons why I departed altogether from the general rule of all European armies, and commenced with the manual exercise in drilling recruits like children learning their alphabet.” This shows how he had to teach them how to do manual exercise, and the men had to be taught like children. This shows how overtime von Steuben changed the tactics and methods of the militiamen making them better fighters.
The concept of the rights of the colonies to rebel if they have a reason has stayed the same overtime. The concepts of the natural rights of a man have also stayed the same as seen by John Locke and The Declaration of Independence. The Declaration of Independence was primarily written by Thomas Jefferson. The arrival of this document portrays how consistently overtime people tended to go towards war rather than reformation. John Locke had very similar views like the Declaration of Independence by stating the natural rights of men. Locke said, “…when in the hands of the magistrate, but to preserve the members of that society in their lives, liberty, and possessions.” This meant that man had natural rights such as life, liberty, and property. He believed this a long time before the Declaration of Independence. The Declaration of Independence said, “We hold these truths to be self-evident, that all men are created equal, that they are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable Rights, that among these are Life, Liberty and the pursuit of Happiness.” These are almost the same views on what people contain over a large timespan. This is due to the influence of John Locke on people like Thomas Jefferson. It is important to realize the similarities of these concepts overtime to realize how injustice is dealt with. The concepts of the natural rights of a man are interconnected. These similarities in concepts between two different periods of time portray the continuity of a concept and the effect of that concept overtime. The effects of the Declaration of Independence is that it created certain rights that all main withheld and described the fact that all men are created equal.
Haiti was important to France because of the resources like sugar and coffee. The document says, “The French devoted nearly all land in Saint-Domingue to plantations, growing mainly sugar, coffee, and tobacco.” Haiti was a not a real colony of France, but rather an important resource to France. Haiti was full of slaves hat helped produce goods for the mother country. This relationship was mutual until the slaves felt that their rights were being denied as a result of the Declaration of of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen which was passed by France’s National Constituent Assembly in 1789. This provided the slaves and affranchis a reason to fight. After the revolution the relationship with the mother country was completely cut off. Haiti basically declared themselves as an independent nation, but was left with an immense amount of debt to pay France. The ties after independence was declared can be considered as severed.
He was a leader of the Saint-Domigue revolution who supported the slave revolt because he was a black leader. He was a key aspect to the success of the revolt because he officially named himself the ruler of Saint Domingue for life. Toussaint Louverture organized local Haitian militias, and succeeded by ousting the whites from the colony. Created the Constitution of 1801 which was a constitution that was created to represent how Haiti would be organized. He helped lead the route to the revolution which is why he was very important.
Dessalines became the leader of the of the Haitian revolution after the capture of Toussaint Louverture on June 7, 1802. Dessalines commanded the rebel forces against the French army after disease weakened it. Many other commanders joined the movement for the Haitian rebels because of the true intentions of the French which were to reinstate slavery. Dessalines took over as the commander-in-chief and led the army. He tried to originally call in arms for all rebel leaders to form a united rebel group and then his troops subdued the leaders that would not cooperate. Dessalines joining the Haitians was ultimately the reason that the Haitians were able to gain independence along with the help of the disease Yellow Fever. Dessalines took the tactic of burning plantations and towns to the ground.
The French Revolution is a period of time when there were major social and political changes in France. This time in history marks the rise of democracy within France. The French Revolution can be seen as one of the major turning points in history for Haiti due to the rights advocated within all of the people who belong to France. Many of the ideas of the French Revolution were interconnected to that of the Haitian Revolution because France was undergoing a major change while the Haitian slaves were yearning for change. The original conditions of the slaves can be seen by the quote by a man named Nicolas Le Jeune, “It is the feeling of absolute power the master holds over the slaves’ person that prevents them from stabbing the master to death. Remove this break and the slave will attempt anything.” The French Revolution leaders contemplated on whether to give the colonies the rights of French men, but later on the French council decided that the colonies would be held under a different constitution than the French. Antoine-Pierrre Barnave a spokesman for the National Assembly said, “...The colonial regime is oppressive but it gives livelihood to several million Frenchmen. This regime is barbarous but a still greater barbarity will result if you interfere with it without the necessary knowledge.” This shows the different perspectives towards slaves because the French were contemplating whether or not to abolish slavery while the Haitian slave owners thought it was ridiculous. The French Revolution idea that made the biggest impact on the Haitian Revolution is the one where all men are created equal because the slaves did not get these opportunities. The slaves took this concept and later used it to show why slavery needed to be abolished. The document that signifies the values and ideas of the French revolution is, “The Declaration of of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen” which was passed by France’s National Constituent Assembly in 1789. This document advocates equality for all the people in France. One of the most important quotes from this Declaration is, “Men are born and remain free and equal in rights…” This quote from the French Revolution was not only significant to the slave revolt in Haiti, but also the revolt for the poor white people also known as the affranchis.
Strengths and Weaknesses
The first constitution was written by Toussaint Louverture. This document incited the war between the French and Haitians. The Constitution of 1801 was a constitution that was created by the leader of Saint Domingue Toussaint Louverture. The constitution was promulgated on July 8th, 1801. This is a significant document because it expressed solely Toussaint Louverture's thoughts and demonstrated to France how Louverture was not completely loyal to France. The strengths of the new government of Haiti after the revolution is that it was initially run by the local Haitians and the people were free. In October 1804, Dessalines crowned Emperor Jacques 1 of Haiti. In May the next year, he ratified Haiti's first constitution. This constitution was mildly effective because it attempted to strengthen national unity by proclaiming all citizens of Haiti black. The constitution also proclaimed all slaves free. But later the economy significantly declined and Haiti became full of poverty. The new government was not structured to be fit for trade or to produce the goods it was able make before and Haiti was in debt with France. The government could not handle this and Haiti became full of poverty. The lack of political control led US to take over Haiti for about 30 years.
The French Revolution was a period of time when there were major social and political changes in France. This time in history marks the rise of democracy within France. The French Revolution can be seen as one of the major turning points in history for Haiti due to the rights advocated within all of the people who belong to France. Many of the ideas of the French Revolution were interconnected to that of the Haitian Revolution because France was undergoing a major change while the Haitian slaves were yearning for change. The French Revolution idea that made the biggest impact on the Haitian Revolution is the one where all men are created equal because the slaves did not get these opportunities. The slaves took this concept and later used it to show why slavery needed to be abolished. The document that signifies the values and ideas of the French revolution is, “The Declaration of of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen” which was passed by France’s National Constituent Assembly in 1789. This document advocates equality for all the people in France. One of the most important quotes from this Declaration is, “Men are born and remain free and equal in rights. Social distinctions may be based only on common utility.” This quote from the French Revolution was not only significant to the slave revolt in Haiti, but also the revolt for the poor white people also known as the affranchis. This French Revolution is directly connected with the movement of freedom among the slaves and that it is why it is a very important to consider this as the start of the war for Independence. In the long term it can be seen as the start of the change of Haiti. The effect of this concept was that the slaves began a rebellion with their leader being Toussaint Louverture. The colonists were inspired to fight for liberty and this can be seen when Toussaint Louverture says, “I want liberty and equality to reign in Saint-Domingue. I have worked since the beginning to make that happen…” This quote exemplifies how the French Revolution ideas affected the slaves, and incited them to rebel for their rights. The French Revolution ideas really got in the heads of the slaves and poor white population. These events eventually led to the independence of Haiti.
From the beginning Portugal adopted mercantilist principals so the mother country would benefit from the colonialism. Brazil was limited to only exporting goods to the Portuguese which was fine by the Brazilians. The Portuguese moved Brazil when Napoleon invaded and occupied Portugal. Brazil was made the capital of the Portuguese Empire. Brazil benefited from this because they got important structures made like a national bank. Dom Joao even opened the ports to the foreign countries. The relationship was actual very mutual until Dom Joao had to go to Portugal as a result of a Portuguese revolution. Dom Joao left his son in charge known as Dom Pedro, but the Cortes also known as the Portuguese parliament tried to take away the Brazilian freedoms. Dom Pedro then just took over and it there was minor bloodshed, and Brazil later became free from Portugal.
Dom Joao-Father of Dom Pedro and he was important because he left to go to Portugal to stop a rebellion, and left his song Dom Pedro as the leader of Brazil. This eventually led to the Brazilian Revolution.
Dom Pedro-Led the Brazilian Independence movement and defied his father. He also defied the Cortes and proclaimed that he was going to stay in Brazil because that is what the people want. He was the first kind of the Brazilian Empire.
Dom Pedro faced a difficult political situation because the Cortes were trying to minimize Brazils rights while the Brazilians were becoming more uneasy with the Portuguese rule. The Cortes wanted to restore Brazil to its original condition where it was just a benefactor to Portugal. this was unacceptable among the Brazilian population. The Cortes even tried to send Dom Pedro back to Lisbon with his father in the fear that he would cause a war for independence. Dom Pedro went against the Cortes and disregarded what his father said about the Brazilian Revolution. Dom Joao originally told his son to not participate in the Brazilian Revolution, but later Dom Pedro said, “I am convinced that my presence in Brazil is important for the country and the Portuguese nation as well.” The Brazilians wanted Dom Pedro to remain to control Brazil. The Brazilian independence did not involve much bloodshed like the other revolutions, but it was not completely peaceful. Portuguese troops had been dispatched to reestablish colonial rule, but the attempts were unsuccessful. What made the Brazilian Revolution unique is that Brazil still kept the language and culture of the Portuguese after the ties were severed. Dom Pedro declared independence in Brazil on September 7, 1823. The Cortes was unhappy about this Independence movement while the Brazilians were ready to gain Independence.
The strengths of this independence movement were that Brazil was able to trade with whomever they wanted to. In reality this Independence movement did not change much in Brazil because the leader was a former successor of royalty in Portugal. The first years of independence were hard, but not as chaotic as other Lain American republics. Brazil experienced a series of regional revolts that were in fact bloody, but the national economy remained strong along with the government. Dom Pedro was not the most experienced leader, and was sometimes impulsive while most of the time making good decisions. In 1823 he dissolved the constituent assembly, but he and his Council of State then wrote a constitution that was liberal and highly forward thinking for its time. It strengthened the power of the emperor and was promulgated in 1824. The constitution helped centralize the government by allowing the emperor the power to dissolve the Chamber of Deputies, select the Senate, and appoint or dismiss ministers. Overall the revolution was a success because not much of a war was fought, and a strong government was formed for the starting years. As time went on the Brazilian people became discontent with Dom Pedro and abdicated him. The independence of Brazil was influenced by the French Revolution, American Revolution, and was affected by the printing press. Dom Pedro was a very dedicated leader because when the Brazilians called him,"Defensor e Protetor Perpétuo do Brasil" (Protector and Perpetual Defender of Brazil) he said "I am honored and proud with this title that the generous and loyal people of Brazil confer on me. But I cannot accept it. Brazil does not need protection. It can protect itself. I accept, however, the title of perpetual defender and I swear to give the last drop of my blood to deserve it."
Similarities and Differences Among the Revolutions
The concept of being ruled from a mercantilist perspective that has limited rights is something that is similar to the American Revolution and the Brazilian Revolution. Both groups felt like they were being mistreated to the point of the need for Independence. Brazilian and the American Colonies believed that the mother country had restricted their rights and oppressed them. This can be seen when a native Brazilian asking for help from the USA says,"This continually becomes more insupportable since the epoch of your glorious independence, for the cruel Portuguese omit nothing which can render our condition more wretched, from an apprehension that we may follow your example. The conviction, that these usurpers against the laws of nature and humanity only meditate new oppressions..." This is describing how the USA should understand how cruel a mother country can be because the mother country oppresses the people. The quote even goes far enough to explain how the Brazilians want to follow the path of the glorious American Independence. This is similar to the colonial American independence movement because Thomas Paine says, “But Britain is the parent country, say some. Then the more shame upon her conduct. Even brutes do not devour their young, nor savages make war upon their families.” This shows how both the Americans and Brazilians viewed the mother countries as terrible and brutish. The similarity of view shows how the colonies typically began to feel about the mother country overtime.
The Declaration of Independence of both Brazil and America are in fact very different even though both "fought" for similar reasons. The Declaration of Independence for America lists the grievances and the natural rights of all men in order to justify why independence is necessary. The Brazilian declaration was basically Dom Pedro saying that Brazil was independent as a result of him being angry at his father. This clear difference can be seen when reading a part of the Declaration of Independence in America which says, "We hold these truths to be self-evident, that all men are created equal, that they are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable Rights, that among these are Life, Liberty and the pursuit of Happiness.” Now this is about the rights of a any man but the Brazilian Declaration of Independence says, "The Cortes is persecuting me, calling me an adolescent and a Brazilian. Well now, let them see their adolescent in action. From today on, our relations with them are finished. I want nothing more from the Portuguese government and I proclaim Brazil forevermore separated from Portugal." This shows the major difference of motives behind both independence movements because the Brazilian movement was based off a temper tantrum while the American movement was based off of actual grievances.
These revolutions are similar in that the colonists both perceive their mother country as enslaving them rather than just ruling over them. This is an important similarity to realize how the colonists perspectives were very similar even though there circumstances were different. Haitians actually fought for independence to abolish slavery while Brazilians referred to themselves as slaves. This still exemplifies how the concept of being enslaved was concurrent throughout both revolutions. A quote from the Brazilian Revolution says, "I am a native of Brazil. You are not ignorant of the frightful slavery under which my country groans." This quote shows how the country is thought to be enslaved and is suffering due to the so called slavery. It shows how slavery should be gone, so that they could succeed. From a Haitian perspective it says, “ There can be no slaves on this territory; servitude has been forever abolished. All men are born, live and die there free and French.” This was obtained by the Haitian Constitution of 1801. It shows how there were slaves previously in the territory, but it was unacceptable. It also shows how people should not be enslaved by the mother country, but rather accepted as one. It still shows how the territory was enslaved and how it was wrong.
The differences are that Haitian Revolution was far more violent and involved a full fledged war while the Brazilian Revolution did not require anything, but minor wars. Also the Declaration of Independence of the Brazilian Revolution did not require bloodshed, but the Haitian one did. Brazilian revolution was childish in the sense that Dom Pedro declared independence to spite the Cortes while the Haitian Revolution had major reasons. As seen in the reference in the American Revolution. The economy of Haiti was basically destroyed after the independence while the Brazilian economy remained stable for a good sum of time right after independence.
This influence of the the French Revolution document of is similar to that of the Enlightenment Influence to America. The French Revolution document says, “Men are born and remain free and equal in rights…”. This is a similar idea of equality of that of the Declaration of Independence. This is important because it shows how previous revolutions ideas are similar to latter ones such as the Haitian Revolution. The French Revolution influenced the Haitian revolution because of the idea of freedom. The Declaration of Independence said, “We hold these truths to be self-evident, that all men are created equal…” The two ideas have correlated over time. Both time periods of revolution grasped the concept of equality among all men. The difference between the two documents is that the Declaration of Independence was written in America and was the start of the American revolution. The French Revolution document was written in France, but affected an fueled the Haitian revolution. The long term impact of the Haitian revolution is that slavery was emancipated, but it left Haiti in a state of poverty. The short term impact of this was that Haiti was the first successful slave revolt ending slavery. It acted as sort of a predecessor for later slave revolts like the Civil War in America. The success of the Haitian revolution changed the history of France and slavery across the world.