Types of mining and fracking

julia macvaugh

Differences between Surface and Subsurface

Surface= this is the type of mining that includes open pit mining

  1. surface mining includes on the surface of the earth and and just happens in little pits Subsurface= this is the type of mining that is happens in the earth it extracts minerals for in ground of earth 1. subsurface happens in the earth the brings minerals from inside out to the surface for use

Examples of mining


~strip- this is when miners obtain coal by open pit mining.

~open pit- other name for it is open cast mining. This is when miners extract minerals from below the earth through a pit. they do this by wall mining of digging tunnels.

~Mountain top removal- This type of method started in the 1970s in the applachhain mountains by using strips to grab the minerals.


~slope- this is when a shaft goes downward to go and get the materials and ores they need to bring back up to the surface.

~Drift- in a horizontal passage way miners go through and put the minerals in miner pacers.

~shaft- this refers to a vertical shaft that brings the minerals up form the ground. So there is no way to access the bottom



~ fracking is when you inject hot powerful liquid is put in to the mining hole which then brings the oil and coal up to the surface

~fracking has a effect on the environment by contaminate the groundwater

~also can have blowouts due to gas explosions

Big image