The Immune and Endocrine System

William Wright

The Immune System

The Immune System helps the body fight off infections, diseases, viruses, and bacteria that can cause harm.

Active immunity is the persons natural and permanent protection produced by their own immune system.

Passive immunity is protection from another animal or human and is used by injection. It is not permanent.

An antigen is a substance that helps your body produce antibodies to fight of certain things. It is usually acquired by another something in the area like chemicals or bacteria.

An antibody is a type of protein formed by the body when a harmful substance called antigens are in it.

A pathogen is something that infects the body and causes diseases or illness.

Antibiotics can be harmful if used to treat a virus because antibiotics can't treat viruses They can't do this because an antibiotic helps the immune system fight off or fights the bacteria off itself. Also, bacteria are living, (unlike viruses which are not), so the living antibiotic can't do anything.

HIV/AIDS is an infection that actually weakens the immune system to the point that the system can't fight off normal things that the body can. Symptoms would be the symptoms of anything the body is under attack while the infection is there. There is no cure but there are drugs someone can take so that it strengthens the immune system.

Sever Combined Immunodeficiency is a birth defect that makes people with it be missing a lot of white blood cells. Again, all symptoms would be symptoms of an opportunistic infection (an infection of a disease that inhabits a weakly immunes somebody).

The Endocrine System

The Endocrine system is the bodies control stations. It controls everything that goes on in the body.

Homeostasis is the balance of things in a substance. Homeostasis in the body is regulated by Hormones. These hormones induce positive and negative feedback.

Positive feedback takes a problem in the body, has an action, but continues that action forward. This is not always the better feedback.

Negative feedback takes a problem and reverses it. Say your heart rate is climbing, a hormone would be released to counteract it.

Type I Diabetes is in 5 to 10 people out of 100 who have diabetes. It destroys the cells that produce insulin which eliminates insulin completely. insulin absorbs sugar to be turned into energy.

Type II Diabetes is in 90 to 95 people out of 100 people with diabetes. It occurs mostly with adults but children can have it as well. It keeps the bodies insulin from being used right away called insulin resistance. As it gets worse, the pancreas creates less and less insulin called insulin deficiency.