Element 18: Helping Students Examine Their Reasoning


Design Question 3: Help Students Practice and Deepen New Knowledge

Helping students examine their reasoning is at the core of instructional changes explicit in the more rigorous standards. Students must continually be provided the opportunity and guidance to examine their own reasoning as well as that of others.

Learning Goal Scale

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Connections to Other Elements

Helping students to revise their understanding cannot nor should occur in isolation. For students to be critical thinkers, they need to thoroughly understand the content. The process by which students examine reasoning occurs only after the student engages in the elements in Design Question 2, processing, elaborating, recording and reflecting on new content. Furthermore, examining their own reasoning will then help them to revise their understanding with further cements their learning.

Example of a Traditional Classroom Vs. Modifications for More Rigor and Depth

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Marzano's Four Categories of Errors

Analyzing errors is a powerful way to deepen students' understanding of knowledge. The four categories of errors include:

These types of errors must be directly taught to students and exemplified in concrete terms.

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Examining the Principals of Critical Thinking

Desired Effect for Element 18: Helping Students Examine Reasoning

Desired Effect:

Students can identify and articulate errors in logic or reasoning, or the structure of an argument, and explain new insights resulting from this analysis.

Marzano Protocol For Element 18: Helping Students Examine Reasoning

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Monitoring Strategies:

The following strategies have multiple functions, but for our purpose they will not serve as a way to grade the students, rather they would be used to monitor whether or not a desired effect was achieved for a specific element.

*Please note that the example use is not limited to these elements. With all strategies, monitoring strategies need to be carefully selected. You must take into consideration the desired effect and the context of the situation.

  • Monitoring the Classroom by Walking Around, Part 1
  • Monitoring the Classroom by Walking Around, Part 2: Strategies for Student Engagement
  • Monitoring the Classroom by Walking Around, Part 3: Content

Scale for Element 18: Examining Errors in Reasoning

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