Exam

Study guide

Reaction in the bag lab

Purpose: to record the observations that occur when multiple chemical substances are combined and to use my observations to understand the reaction if the chemicals.


Materials:

  • substance A & B
  • 2 spoons
  • graduated cylinder
  • red liquid
  • zip lock bag
  • water
Lab Safety

  • wear goggles
  • wear apron
Substance A is Calcium Chloride


Substance B is Baking Soda



Scholar Reaction In The Bag Inquiry Demonstration and Lab Activity

Heating baking soda

Purpose: to observe and record the reaction that occurs when baking soda is heated.



Materials


  • baking soda
  • tea
  • two test tubes
  • water
  • bottle
  • rubber band
  • container
  • stirring rod
  • peg board
  • rubber tube
  • glass bend
  • stopper
  • burner
  • matches
  • clamp
Control group: un heated test tube


experimental: heated test tube

indicator: tea (showed that heated it is no longer baking soda)

variable: a category you try to measure

independent variable: causes a change in the dependent variable (temperature)

Dependent variable: color of tea

control factors : Things we can control


  • using same type of tea
  • same amount of baking soda and tea
  • same size test tube
  • same stirring time
Experimental Errors



  • hole in tubbing
  • stopper not snug
Extra question:


Is the amount of condensation that forms at the top of the heated test tube more or less than the amount of baking soda being heated?

Less or equal to because condensation comes from baking soda it cannot prodyce more than itself




Lab 1.1 Heating Baking Soda

Lab safety notes

For every lab


  • goggles must be kept over your eyes until Mr. Leeds says to put them away
  • report ALL accidents/spills to Mr.Less immediately
  • try you best to use common sense
Emergency number for nurse:2828


Safety Equipment

  • fire extinguisher
  • fire blanket
  • Eye wash/ shower

Chemicals

  • never taste chemicals
  • always WAFT liquids to detect odor
  • Never WAFT solids/ powders
  • avoid touching chemicals
  • ALways wash hands with soap and water after lab
  • if chemicals touch skin: flush skin with water for 1 minute AND notify Mr.Leeds


Glass

  • Hot glass look the same
  • never use chipped or broken glass: tell Mr.Leeds and dispose of broken glass in proper trash
  • never force to remove or insert glass

Alcohol Burners

  • roll up sleeves put UP long hair NOT just pull back
  • never walk away from a lit burner
  • never point the open end of a hot test tube at yourself or someone else
  • Do not look down into a test tube/beaker while it is being heated
  • Make sure burner is capped and flame is out when done


End of Experiment

  • Clean up Area & Materials completely
  • make certain that burner is out if one was used
  • keep goggles on (over eyes) until Mr.Leeds says to put them away


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Ice Ice Baby lab

I. Purpose: To determine if the mass of ice will increase, decrease, or stay the same when it melts

II. Procedure:

1. Zero the balance and clean the pan

2. Dry cap and bottle

3. Mass the bottle/cap

4. Mass the bottle/cap with ice

5. Melt the ice

6. Mass the bottle/cap with water

III. Materials:

1. Water

2. Cap

3. Ice

4. Balance data

IV. Lab Safety: N/A

V. Data and/or Observations:

Mass of bottle/ cap (g)

5.460

5.451


Mass of bottle/cap with ice (g)

7.430

6.468


MI of Ice (g)

1.970

1.017


Mass of bottle/cap with water (g)

7.430

6.468


MF of water (g)

1.970

1.017


Delta M

0

0


VI. Experimental Errors:

1. The ice hasn’t fully melted and you weigh it

2. If there is a crack in your bottle


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The Mass of Dissolved Salt Lab

I. Purpose:

To determine if the mass of salt decreases when salt dissolves in H2O

II. Procedure:

1. Check pan/ Zero balance

2. DRY CAP and then mass cap

3. Add 2g to the balance

4. Add salt to cap until balanced

5. Fill bottle 2/3 with H2O

6. Mass bottle with H2O and cap with salt together but NOT MIXED

7. Pir salt into bottle

8. Shake bottle until salt dissolves

9. Mass bottle with CAP ON

10. Calculate Change in mass: final mass- initial mass

III. Materials:

· Salt

· Bottle

· Cap

· Water

· Balance

· Scooper

IV. Lab Safety: N/A

V. Data and/or Observations:

Initial Mass

Final Mass

Change in mass

1

17.388

17.353

0.035

2

18.302

18.138

-0.164

VI. Experimental Errors:

· Clean pan between initial mass and final mass

· Outside of bottle is wet during initial mass


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The Density of a Solid Lab

I. Purpose: To use density to determine if 3 metal objects are made of the same substance.

II. Procedure:

1. Zero balance the scale

2. Mass the cubes separately

3. Answer blue dot question number 1

4. Mass the slab

5. Answer blue dot question number 2

6. Measure the dimensions of each of the three objects

7. fund the volume and mass of an irregular shaped object (rock)

8. calculate density of rock

III. Materials:

1. Rock

2. Ruler

3. Balance

4. 3 metal objects

5. Graduated cylinder

6. Water

7. Lighter

IV. Lab Safety: N/A

V. Data and/or Observations:

Object

Length (cm)

Width (cm)

Height (cm)

Cube 1

1.20

1.20

1.20

Cube 2

1.20

1.20

1.20

Slab

7.60

2.50

.60

Object

Volume (cm3)

Mass (g)

Density (g/cm3)

Cube 1

1.728

5.651

3.27

Cube 2

1.728

15.750

9.12

Slab

11.40

33.701

2.95

Rock

1.6

4.207

2.62

1. Cube 2

2. It’s different

VI. Experimental Errors:

1. If you find the volume of the rock before the mass

2. If you but the rock in and water splashes out


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Sensitivity of a Balance Lab


I. Purpose: To observe if you mass the same object repeatedly will the mass remain the same also to find out how different the masses of two objects must be for our balance to detect the difference

II. Procedure:

Part A

1. Clean pan/ Zero balance

2. Mass penny stopper alternately 4 times

3. Do not share data until finished ALL massing

Part B

1. Zero balance

2. Cut out a 20 x20 square

3. Mass the large square

4. Calculate mass of 1 small square (divided by 400)

5. Figure out how many squares are between .0033 .0075

6. Cut out 10 groups of squares (between .003-.007)

7. Mass stopper leave it in pan and don’t move riders

8. Add groups of squares one at a time and record mass and changes

III. Materials:

· Stopper

· Penny

· Balance

· Graph paper

· Scissors

IV. Lab Safety: N/A

V. Data and/or Observations:

Part A

#

Mass of penny (g)

Mass of stopper (g)

1

3.000

8.192

2

3.051

8.193

3

3.100

8.200

4

3.050

8.220

Part B

Square Calculations

Mass of 20x20

0.630

Mass of single square

0.001575

Mass of 4 square in group

0.0063

Initial mass of stopper 12 g

# of groups

Change in mass (yes or no)

Mass (g)

1

No

12

2

Yes

12.010

3

Yes

12.020

4

Yes

12.045

5

Yes

12.050

6

Yes

12.060

7

Yes

12.090

8

No

12.090

9

No

12.090

10

Yes

12.100

Sensitivity of Balance

Sensitivity number of yes’s

0.100

Number of yes’s

7

Sensitivity

0.0142857

Blue Dot Questions

1. Does your balance give the same results to the nearest 0.01 g? the nearest 0.001g? or something in between?

The same number to the hundredths place for the penny and the hundredths for the stopper

2. How many groups of squares did you have to add before the balance gave you an observable response?

There is no pattern because every time the balance went up a point or just stayed the same

VI. Experimental Errors:

1. The book company accidently made one of the squares bigger

2. If the calculator wasn’t working correctly

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The Mass of Copper and Sulfur Lab

I. Purpose: To see if the total mass increases, decreases, or stays the same when sulfur and copper are heated together

II. Procedure:

1. Clean and zero balance your pan

2. Mass the test tube, sheet, & rubber band

3. Mass 2g copper

4. Mass the paper towel

5. Add a gram to the balance

6. Mass the sulfur

7. Find the Mi of copper and sulfur

8. Put the copper and sulfur in a test tube

9. Ask Mr. Leeds if you can light the burner

10. Light the burner

11. Heat the mixture gently until it begins to glow

12. Remove the flame immediately

13. Mass the test tube, sheet, band, copper, and sulfur heated

14. Find the Mf of copper and sulfur

15. Find the Delta M

16. Clean up

III. Materials:

· Sulfur

· Copper

· Balance

· Large test tube

· Peg board

· Large clump

· Rubber sheet

· Rubber band

· Burner

· Matches

· Paper towel

IV. Lab Safety: Wear goggles and apron and put your hair up.

V. Data and/or Observations:

Mass of test tube/ sheet/ band

33.691

Mass of test tube/ sheet/ band/copper/ sulfur unheated

36.648

MI of copper and sulfur

2.957

Mass of test tube/ sheet/ band/ copper/ sulfur heated

36.645

MF of copper and sulfur

2.954

Change in Mass

-.003

VI. Experimental Errors:

1. There can be holes in the sheet.

2. There can be sulfur in the pan during the measurement of the sulfur and not there during anything else.


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The Density of a Liquid lab

I. Purpose: To use density to compare 2 liquids to determine if they are the same substance

II. Procedure:

1. Zero/check pan

2. Waft liquid

3. Mass empty cylinder

4. Fill graduated cylinder with 10cm3 of liquid

5. Mass graduated cylinder with liquid

6. Pour liquid into sink

7. Clean-up and repeat with other liquid

III. Materials:

1. Liquid A

2. Liquid B

3. Scale

4. Graduated Cylinder

5. 2 beakers

IV. Lab Safety: Safety goggles and apron

V. Data and/or Observations:

Liquid

Mass of Empty Cylinder

(g)

Mass of liquid and cylinder

(g)

Mass of liquid

(g)

Volume of liquid

(cm3)

Density of liquid

(g/cm3)

A

14.95

26.44

11.49

10

1.15

B

14.96

25.24

10.28

10

1.03

VI. Experimental Errors:

1. If someone before you put the substance back into the main jar. This would possibly put other substances in it.

2. You measure the graduated cylinder then clean out the water from it this would cause a lose in weight.


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The Density of a Gas Lab

I. Purpose: To produce and collect a gas in order to accurately figure out the density of the gas

II. Procedure:

1. Clean pan/ Zero balance

2. Break the tablet

3. Fill test tube with about 5cm3 of water

4. Mass 2 halves tablets and test tubes with water and rubber band

5. Find volume of bottle (fill bottle and empty it into the graduated cylinder)

6. Set up the apparatus (no air bubbles)

7. Have Mr. Leeds check set up

8. Put tablet in test tube

9. Insert stopper

10. But the tube in the bottle

11. Remove tube from bottle when reaction ends

12. Remove stopper

13. Carefully invert bottle out of container

14. Find volume of H2O left in bottle

15. Mass test tube with H2O, foil, and rubber band

16. Clean up

17. Calculate density of the gas

III. Materials:

1. Balance

2. Water

3. Foil

4. Alka-Seltzer

5. Test tube

6. Stopper

7. Glass bend

8. Rubber tubing

9. 2 rubber band

10. Containers

11. Peg board

12. Bottle

13. Clump

14. Graduated cylinder

IV. Lab Safety: Goggles

V. Data and/or Observations:

Mi (g)

Mf (g)

Delta M (g)

Vi (cm3)

Vf (cm3)

Delta M (cm3)

Density (g/ cm3)

40.251

39.365

-0.886

539.2

247.8

-291.4

3.0

VI. Experimental Errors:

1. Put foil back for MF

2. Touching tablets after MI


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