Map of Europe
The Crusades, or Holy Wars, were a series of battles between Christians and Muslims over who should have control over the Holy Land of Jerusalem. Collectively, these wars spanned over one hundred years, although there are large gaps between some of them.
During the Middle Ages, religion was an important part of life. Almost every person in Europe was a part of the Catholic Church. The church provided most everything for people in the Middle Ages, specifically clothing, shelter, and food.
The doctors of the time had no idea what this disease was or how to stop it. All they knew were "potions" and bloodletting and similar strange methods that did not work. These doctors were called "Quacks" for their curved, beak-like masks.
Charlemagne was another very important ruler. He was the emperor of most of Europe.Charlemagne was a military leader as well as a political leader, and had several successful conquests. There are, of course, many other notable rulers from this time period.