The star that gives Earth its energy!
The sun has many different layers. The layers from the inside out are the inner core, the radioactive zone, the convection zone, the subsurface flows, the photosphere, the chromosphere, and the corona,
The Inner Core
The inner core acts as an engine for the star. It provides the necessary energy to drive the nuclear fusion processes in the sun. Some processes that occur in the inner core are the Proton-Proton Cycle, and the Carbon-Nitrogen-Oxygen Cycle. Almost all the heat from the sun is created in the inner core.
The radiactive core is just outside of the inner core. This part of sun radiates energy through the process of photon emission and capture by the hydrogen and helium ions.
The convection zone is right above the radiactive zone. In this zone, instead of using radiation the transfer energy, it uses convection. The energy is carried through thermal columns to the surface of the sun.
The photosphere is the visible surface of the sun. The photosphere has dark spots all over it called sunspots.
The chromosphere is the layer right above the photosphere. In this layer, temperature rise from 6000 Celsius to 20,000 Celsius. These high temperatures make hydrogen emit light that give off a reddish color.
The corona is the extended outer atmosphere of the sun. It is less dense then the atmosphere of the Earth at sea level. It is a million times brighter then the photosphere.
Sunspots are regions on the solar surface that appear dark because they are cooler than the surrounding photosphere. The largest diameter of a sunspot ever recorded is about 50,000 km, which was large enough to see with the naked eye.
A solar prominence is a dense cloud of gas projecting from the Sun's chromosphere into the corona. They can extend hundreds of thousands of kilometers and are often loop shaped.
A solar flare is defined as a sudden, rapid, intense variation in brightness. It occurs when magnetic energy that has built up in the solar atmosphere is suddenly released.
An aurora is a mysterious and unpredictable display of light in the night sky. The sun causes these auroras because of the sun's giant coronal mass ejections that collide with Earth's magnetic field.