Arts and Living 300 Years Ago

Composers

Music in the 1700s took strides with some of the greatest composers ever producing work. Johann Sebastian Bach, born in 1685, wrote "Toccata and Fugue" and "Mass in B minor". George Frederick Handel, also born in 1685, gave us "Messiah" and "Rinaldo". Finally, Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart, who was born in 1756, is one of the most recognized composers of all time, with "The Magic Flute" and "Requiem" still enduring today. All of them are considered baroque composers, who made classical music.

Art

Works of art in the 1700s changed in styles. Both baroque and rococo refer to all art forms, like paintings, music, and architecture. The Baroque form came into popularity during this time. This form emphasized rich, grand works of art, like the baldachin at St. Peter's Altar in Rome. Bach, Handel, and Mozart (to a degree) are considered Baroque composers. Following the Baroque period, the Rococo style burst onto the scene. In its style, it focused on lightness, elegance, and curving shapes. The Salon de Monsieur le Prince is an example of Rococo art.
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Peasant Life

In France, peasant life revolved mostly around farming, as good land was plentiful. An increase in population, however, hindered the food supply and land available. Many people were illiterate, but those who could read, did read. New ideas from Montesquieu and others were able to be spread, and were talked about. In terms of peasants compared to the government, there was high taxing on the lower classes due to exemptions for the higher classes, and there were no civil rights, or habeus corpus.

Sources


Biography.com Editors. "Johann Sebastian Bach Biography." Bio.com. A&E Networks Television, n.d. Web. 17 Feb. 2016. <http://www.biography.com/people/johann-sebastian-bach-9194289>.


Biography.com Editors. "George Handel Biography." Bio.com. A&E Networks Television, n.d. Web. 17 Feb. 2016. <http://www.biography.com/people/george-handel-9327378#death-and-legacy>.


Biography.com Editors. "Wolfgang Mozart Biography." Bio.com. A&E Networks Television, n.d. Web. 17 Feb. 2016. <http://www.biography.com/people/wolfgang-mozart-9417115>.


Editors of Encyclopedia Britannica. "Baroque Period | Art." Encyclopedia Britannica Online. Encyclopedia Britannica, 3 Jan. 2016. Web. 17 Feb. 2016. <http://www.britannica.com/art/Baroque-period>.


Editors of Encyclopedia Britannica. "Rococo Style | Design." Encyclopedia Britannica Online. Encyclopedia Britannica, 11 Dec. 2014. Web. 17 Feb. 2016. <http://www.britannica.com/art/Rococo-style-design>.


"France in the Mid-1700s." Macrohistory. Frank E. Smitha, 2015. Web. 17 Feb. 2016. <http://www.fsmitha.com/h3/h29-fr2.htm>.


Werger, August. J.S. Bach. N.d. Wikimedia. Web. 17 Feb. 2016.


De Matteis, Paolo. The Triumph of the Immaculate. N.d. Wikimedia. Web. 17 Feb. 2016.


Morgenstern, Johann. A Farm in 1794. N.d. Wikipedia. Web. 17 Feb. 2016.


Ellis, Elisabeth Gaynor, and Anthony Esler. Prentice Hall World History: Connections to Today: The Modern Era. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall, 2003. Print.


Courbet, Gustave. Bonjour, Monsieur Courbet. N.d. Wikimedia. Web. 29 Mar. 2016. <https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Realism_(arts)#/media/File:Gustave_Courbet_-_Bonjour_Monsieur_Courbet_-_Mus%C3%A9e_Fabre.jpg>.


Friedrich, Caspar David. Wanderer above the Sea Fog. N.d. Wikimedia. Web. 29 Mar. 2016. <https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Romanticism#/media/File:Caspar_David_Friedrich_-_Wanderer_above_the_sea_of_fog.jpg>.


Stieglitz, Alfred. The Steerage. N.d. Wikimedia. Web. 29 Mar. 2016. <https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Photography#/media/File:Alfred_Stieglitz_(American_-_The_Steerage_-_Google_Art_Project.jpg>.


Monet, Claude. Haystacks (sunset). 1891. Museum of Fine Arts, Boston.Wikipedia. Wikimedia, 2016. Web. 30 Mar. 2016.


Van Gogh, Vincent. N.d. Wikipedia. Wikimedia, 2016. Web. 30 Mar. 2016. <https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Post-Impressionism#/media/File:Vincent_Willem_van_Gogh_132.jpg>.


Picasso, Pablo. Three Musicians. 1921. Wikipedia. Museum of Modern Art, n.p.


Kupka, Frantisek. Fugue in Two Colors. 1912. Narodni Gallery, Prague.Wikipedia. Wikimedia, 2016. Web. 19 May 2016. <https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Abstract_art>.


https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dada#/media/File:Hoch-Cut_With_the_Kitchen_Knife.jpg


https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Surrealism#/media/File:L%27Ange_du_Foyeur.jpg


https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Surrealism#/media/File:L%27Ange_du_Foyeur.jpg


https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jazz#/media/File:Louis_Armstrong_restored.jpg

Arts During the 1800's

Realism

Realism showed the world as it was. There was no emphasis on beauty or emotion; paintings were just made to show life. Whether that was simple, harsh, or nice, it was realism if it demonstrated what was going on. Some people used this to attack society's brutality, some just for simplicity. This painting shows simplicity, just people having a chat outside.

Romanticism

Romanticism was the bolder, more imaginative style of the day. These works typically glorified nature and tried to evoke strong emotions in their audience. Novels portrayed mysterious, sad, different heroes, with grimmer themes. Composers like Beethoven used full modern orchestras to make their music. Paintings showed nature, the past, the present, with bright colors and possibly action. This painting shows intensity and boldness of a crashing sea with a man watching it.

Photography

Photography was taking real pictures. This new form could portray things exactly as they were quickly, and the realism style faded. Faraway places could be shown as they were without having to go there. The downside was that real harshness and brutality could be perfectly captured. Factory and city conditions could be shown, and people killed in war could be shown.

Impressionism

To combat photography's growing dominance over realism, impressionism took hold. Impressionists sought to make strong impressions on their viewers with visible brush strokes. New science showed human eyes mixed colors that didn't actually blend together in their paintings, so not keeping brush strokes hidden proved to be an effective style. This painting is just that, with visible brush strokes.

Postimpressionism

Different impressionist painters developed different styles of painting. These painters were postimpressionists. Some used dots of color to make up paintings. Others used sharp lines and bright colors. Still others focused on intensity. The bright, sharp colors in this painting make it a postimpressionist work.

Arts During the 1900's

Cubism

Cubism was a new art style that emerged in the 1900's. Pablo Picasso and Georges Braque pioneered this form, where three-dimensional objects were broken into fragments of complex patterns with angles and planes. New ways of looking at everyday things could be produced by breaking them into separate shapes.

Abstract

Abstract was built off of cubism. Abstract didn't represent reality as it was. However, instead of showing different things as fragments with patterns and lines, it showed absolutely nothing recognizable at all. Lines, colors, and shapes made up the paintings.

Dada

Dada was an open revolt against civilization. Dadaists were about chaos and abnormality, and rejected morality and humanity. Paintings were meant to shock and disturb. Though an art form, it was an "anti-art" movement that had followers throughout the world.

Surrealism

Surrealism was inspired by cubism and dadaism. Sigmund Freud had led people to explore the subconscious mind and dreams. Surrealism showed odd images that could be found in dreams, like burning giraffes or melting clocks painted by Salvador Dali.

Architecture

New styles of architecture evolved to reflect the industrialized world. It was believed that the function of a building should determine its form. Frank Lloyd Wright designed buildings with materials that fit their environment. The Bauhaus School in Germany blended science, technology, and design.

Music

As radios grew in use, new forms of music came as well. Jazz was a new style from African-Americans. It combined western harmonies with African rhythms. Jazz musicians created simple, unique melodies and improvisations. Europe embraced American popular culture, which had more freedom and willingness to experiment.