Analiese Gerald

Johnson Becomes President

After Assassination

  • JFK is assassinated and LBJ is sworn in on same day: November 22, 1963

  • Lyndon B. Johnson sworn in in airport and without a Bible

  • made transition smooth, kept most of JFK's policies and even most of "the Harvards", Kennedy's team

Election of 1964

  • Democrat Johnson vs. Republican Goldwater

  • Johnson ran as an extreme liberal while Goldwater ran as an extreme conservative

  • Johnson used the Tonkin Gulf Incident to his advantage

  • Johnson won by a huge margin: 486 electoral votes to 53 and about 16 million more popular votes

Tonkin Gulf Resolution and Vietnam War

Tonkin Gulf Resolution

  • unknown to the public and congress, American and South Vietnamese participated in raids along the cost of North Vietnam

  • when North Vietnam attacked Johnson called the attack "unprovoked"

  • he used the incident to pass the Tonkin Gulf Resolution- congress gave Johnson authorization to use military force without congress declaring war

Vietnam War

  • World opinion of America's involvement in Vietnam war was increasingly hostile

  • America's over commitment in Vietnam left Soviets free to expand influence in Middle East

  • domestic discontent of America's involvement grew also, draft members fled to Canada or publicly burned their draft sheet

  • Israeli/Palestine conflict grew and America was powerless to intervene

  • After opposition to the war reached it's peak in 1968, Johnson finally announced he would pull American troops

The Great Society/ The 24th Amendment

The Great Society

  • democratic social reform programs Johnson passed during the lack of Republicans and conservatives in office

  • doubled the appropriation of the Office of Economic Opportunity to $2 billion

  • created Department of Transportation and the Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD)

  • established National Endowments for the Arts and the Humanities to increase American cultural life

  • Big Four legislative achievements: aid to education, medical care for the elderly and indigent, immigration reform, and a new voting rights bill

24th Amendment

  • ratified 1964

  • prohibits congress and the states from conditioning the right to vote on all levels/ abolished the poll tax infederal elections

Johnson's Civil Rights

  • almost as soon as he entered office as president, he passed the Civil Rights Act of 1964 which banned racial discrimination in private facilities open to the public

  • Voting Rights Act of 1965 outlawed literacy tests and sent federal voter registrars into several southern states

  • violence in South reached a peak, era of peaceful protests was over

  • Johnson attempted to use to the violence to convince nation they needed to act with his "And we will overcome speech"

  • "Black Power" became popular


1968- what all happened to make this a "watershed" year?

  • Johnson announced he would but the brakes on the Vietnam war

  • Robert F. Kennedy, during his presidential campaign, was assassinated

  • Richard Nixon wins presidential election

  • The Siege of Chicago and other anti-war protests