Cell Organelles

Plants Organelles and Animal Organelles

Plant Cell

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Animal Cell

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Cell Membrane

The cell membrane is present in both animal and plant cells. The cell membrane, or plasma membrane is made of bilayer phospholipids and cholesterol. The cell membrane is meant to keep the pieces of the cell in and the bad stuff out.

Cell Wall

The cell wall is only present in plant cells. Its a protective structure made of Cellulose. The cell wall looks like the beams in a building under construction. The cell wall is helping the cell survive.

Cytoplasm

The cytoplasm is present in both plant and animal cells. The cytoplasm is a fluid in the cell that the organelles float in. The cytoplasm has dissolving enzymes that break down large molecules.

Nucleus

The nucleus is present in both plant and animal cells. The nucleus is the brain of the cell. It acts as the control panel, controlling eating reproduction and movement. It looks like a dark spot in the cell. It's usually found near the middle of a cell since if it was close to the edge, it could be damaged.

Nuclear Membrane

The nuclear membrane is present in plant and animal cells. It is also referred to as the nuclear envelope. The nuclear membrane is like the cell membrane. There are spaces in the envelope for ribonucleic DNA and proteins to pass through. It also holds the nucleus and Chromatin

Nucleolus

The Nucleolus is present in animals and plants. It looks like a dark spot in the nucleus. "The nucleus of the nucleus." The nucleolus makes ribosomes.

Centrioles

Centrioles are present in just animal cells. The centrioles are sets of microtubules arranged in 9 sets of 3. Centrioles work in the processes meiosis and mitosis. They cant be seen unless the cell is dividing.

Chromatin

Chromatin is present in animal and plant cells. Chromatin are chromosomes when they aren't coiled tightly. They're made of DNA, RNA, and nuclear proteins. Chromatin only coil to become chromosomes when the cell is reproducing.

Ribosomes

Ribosomes are present in both animal and plant cells. Ribosomes are densse particles which make proteins through protein synthesis. They're either atttached to the Endoplasmic Reticulum, nuclear envelope or floating freely through the cell.

Golgi Apparatus

The golgi apparatus is present in both plant and animal cells. Its also called the golgi complex. The golgi apparatus looks like a stack of pancakes. The golgi apparatus receives simples molecules, turns them into complex molecules, and either store or send the molecules out in vesicles. The golgi apparatus also helps make lysosomes.

Endoplasmic Reticulum

The endoplasmic reticulum is present in both plant and animal cells. For short it's called ER. The ER is double walled/ has a double membrane. There is rough endoplasmic reticulum, which look like bumpy sheets, and smooth endoplasmic reticulum which look like tubes. Rough ER is closer to the nucleus. The smooth ER is a transition area. Chemicals made in the cell sit here for transportation. Rough ER looks and got it's name from the ribosomes attached to its surface.

Mitochondria

The mitochondria is present in both plant and animal cells. The mitochondria burns sugar and, oxygen for fuel using cellular respiration. It generates the cells energy. The mitochondria has a smooth outer membrane and a coiled inner membrane.

Chloroplast

A chloroplast is only in a plant cell. The chloroplast turns light energy into chemical energy with photosynthesis. The chloroplast looks like interconnected stacks of discs. There's an inner membrane and an outer membrane separated by an intermembrane space. There's fluid called Stroma inside the chloroplast.

Lysosome

Lysosomes are present in animal and plant cells. Lysosomes are digestive organelles. They have digestive enzymes used to breakdown food, cells, organelles, and complex molecules. Lysosomes have single membranes.

Peroxisomes

The peroxisomes are in plant and animal cells. They are membranous sacs. Peroxisomes detoxify a substance. Ex. Catalase breaking down Hydrogen Peroxide. Peroxisomes breakdown fatty acids and amino acids. They help in cholesterol synthesis.

Vacuole

Vacuoles are in plant and animal cells. Its a membrane bound sack. Vacuoles are storage organelles. They are used to move chemicals to other places inside the cell. Vacuoles are large in plant cells and small in animal cells.

Cytoskeleton

Both plant cells and animal cells have a cytoskeleton. It looks like complex fibers. The cytoskeleton is made of different types of special proteins. Microfilaments and microtubules are in the cytoskeleton. The cytoskeleton maintains cell shape. Its connected to every organelle and cell membrane. The cell membrane, the organelles, and the cytoplasms movements are controlled by the cytoskeleton.