By: Reilly Heinrich 7th Period


The tundra is the coldest biome on Earth. It contains a special type of soil called permafrost (an under-layer of soil which remains completely frozen at all times). The tundra receives very little precipitation throughout the year. It has strong winds and a cold climate. The tundra does not contain trees but lots of other plant life like reindeer mosses, pasque flowers, and more. There are also many animals such as snowy owls and caribou.

Abiotic Factors:

Soil(permafrost), cold temperatures, strong winds, little precipitation, glaciers, and small biotic diversity.

Biotic Factors


Low shrubs, grasses, reindeer mosses, pasque flowers, and diamond leaf willows


Caribou, water birds, polar bears, mosquitos, snowy owls, grizzly bears, pikas, and Noway lemmings.

What is the tundra known for?

The tundra is known for its frost-molded landscapes, extremely low temperatures, little precipitation, poor nutrients, and short growing seasons.


Average Yearly Precipitation--

About 6-10 inches of snow each year.


Winter: -30˚F (-34˚C)

Summer: 37˚- 54˚F (3˚-12˚C)


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Why do we need this biome?

We need the tundra because it contains permafrost which had the ability to preserve plants and animals in the cold ice for long periods of time. Scientists can use the permafrost as a record of the past to learn about climate.

How do humans affect this biome?

Humans cause air pollution, destruction of habitat, and heat/pressure created by the rapid production of buildings and roads.

How can/do we help and protect this biome?

We help/can help this biome by switching to alternative energy, establishing protected areas, and limiting road construction as well as tourism.
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Interesting Facts About The Tundra

-Because of the extreme temperatures in the tundra, most organisms get their nutrients from the decaying of dead organic material.

-The tundra biome covers about 20% of the Earth.

-The tundra has about 400 varieties of flowers but only 48 different animals.

-The animals in the tundra tend to have small ears and tails. This helps them lose less heat in the cold.