By. Sara Markham
- Islam is a monotheistic religious tradition that developed in the Middle East in the 7th century C.E. Islam, which literally means "surrender" or "submission," was founded on the teachings of the Prophet Muhammad as an expression of surrender to the will of Allah, the creator and sustainer of the world.
- The Qumran, the sacred text of Islam, contains the teachings of the Prophet that were revealed to him from Allah. Essential to Islam is the belief that Allah is the one and true God with no partner or equal.
- Many Muslims are characterized by their commitment to praying to Allah five times a day. One of the defining characteristics of Islam is the primacy of sacred places including Mecca, Medina, and Jerusalem.
- Muhammad was the most-reviled figure in the history of the West from the 7th century until quite recent times.
- Muhammad is one of the most influential figures in history, his life, deeds, and thoughts have been debated by followers and opponents over the centuries, which makes a biography of him difficult to write.
- On the basis of both historical evidence and the Muslim understanding of Muhammad as the Prophet, a response must be fashioned to Christian polemical writings characterizing Muhammad as an apostate if not the Antichrist.
- These date back to the early Middle Ages and still influence to some degree the general Western conception of him. It is essential, therefore, both to examine the historical record though not necessarily on the basis of secularist assumptions and to make clear the Islamic understanding of Muhammad.
Islam to Christianity
Place founded~ Palestine - Arabian Peninsula
Languages~ Aramaic and Greek - Arabic
Location today~ Europe - Middle East
Religious Law~ canon law - Sharia
Nature of God~Trinity - unity
Islam to Confucianism
Sacred text~ The Analects - Qur'an
Scriptures~ Filial piety - Hadiths
Languages~ Chinese - Arabic
Theism~ Pantheistic - Monotheistic
Afterlife~ Yes - Yes