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Weather v.s Climate

Weather is the change in the atmosphere over a short period of time and climate is the average weather in an area over a long period of time. The radiation from the Sun causes convection.

Convection is when hot air rises and cold air sinks and then the sun makes the ground hot so the once cold air is now hotter and the hot air comes down because as you get higher in the atmosphere the air gets thinner therefore colder so that air sinks and it repeats this process forever.

Land vs. Sea Breeze

A land breeze is a breeze moving from the land to the sea. A sea breeze is the opposite, moving from sea to land. These breezes are caused by the high pressure air filling the space of the low pressure air. The cycle is completed by the rising of heat and sinking of the cold air.

Global Patterns

Polar Winds-Permanent outflow of plasma from the polar caps

Trade Winds- A wind that continuously blows towards the equator from the northeast

Westerly Winds- Wind blowing from the West

Easterly Winds- Wind that blows from the East


Tornadoes form when a hot air mass and a cold air mass meet. Usually the rotation is originated when the air masses are at different altitudes. Eventually a funnel cloud is created and will touch down to the ground after developing. Tornadoes can produce winds up to 320 mph.

Tornado ally is the most common place to find tornadoes. This is because here, high and low pressures meet. They are even more common in tornado season which is in late April. To study these tornadoes many scientists use radars, tornado resistant vehicles, and drones. With these they can determine when and where the tornado will occur.


Hurricanes are formed when Water Vapor is evaporated from the ocean surface. The water vapor condenses and warms the surrounding air. Essentially a hurricane is an intense area of low pressure that forms over a warm ocean body. It is most common for a hurricane to form in the summer or early fall.

Hurricane winds can reach up to 160mph. This is how hurricanes are classified; a 160 mph hurricane wind would be a Category 5. Hurricanes are a dangerous and deadly force. For this reason it is one con of living in these areas.


Warm- A mass of warm air; usually brings light to moderate rain.

Cold- A mass of cold air; usually brings thunderstorms.

Occluded- A cold front overtakes a warm front.

Stationary- When the force of a cold and warm air mass are equal and do not result in movement.