APARTHEID IN SOUTH AFRICA

MAGGIE HOHFELER

Background

-Lasted from 1948-1991

-South African government's policy of racial segregation

-"Apartheid" in Afrikaans means separateness

-Afrikaans was one of South Africa's official languages

-Government justified it by saying that a peaceful coexistence of races could exist only through separation

-However, mainly just a way for government to control non-whites


Segregation

-According to law, every South African was either:

1. Black

2. White

3.Coloured (mixed race)

4. Asian

-Required segregation in:

1. Housing

2. Education

3. Employment

4. Public Accommodations

5. Transportations

-Segregated whites from non-whites, as well as major non-white groups from each other

-Limited nonwhite's right to own land and to enter white neighborhoods

Opposition

-Leading opposition group: African National Congress (ANC)- led by Nelson Mandela

-Boycotting, demonstrations, and strikes- many were killed

-1962- United Nations urged members to break diplomatic and economic ties with South Africa until Apartheid was abolished

-1980s- widespread economic boycott of South Africa

-Sharpesville Massacre- South African police open fired on a group of black protestors, many died, resulted in the banning of ANC and many other anti-apartheid groups

-Treason Trial- 1956-1961, 156 anti-apartheid leaders charged with treason, however none of them were found guilty. Many of the charges were dropped, final 30 found not guilty.

People

-Steve Biko- started an anti-apartheid group called South African Students Organization that promoted self-respect among blacks
-Daniel Francois Malan- prime minister of South Africa from 1948-1954 when Apartheid laws started

-Hendrik Verwoerd- prime minister after Malan 1958-1966, was the main architect behind Apartheid laws: oversaw the creation of seperate black living spaces, furthered Apartheid laws

-Nelson Mandela- started ANC, first black South African president

End of Apartheid

-In response to the boycotts, started repealing Apartheid laws in 1970s and 1980s

-In 1990-1991- Repealed most of the remaining laws

-However, Apartheid still had effects even after the laws were repealed: many still faced unofficial segregation and discrimination in South Africa


Works Cited

Clark, Nancy L. "Malan, Daniel Francois." World Book Advanced. World Book, 2013. Web. 14 Feb. 2013.


Clark, Nancy L. "Verwoerd, Hendrik." World Book Advanced. World Book, 2013. Web. 14 Feb. 2013.


Davis, Stephen M. "Biko, Steve." World Book Advanced. World Book, 2013. Web. 14 Feb. 2013.


Fetter, Bruce S. "African National Congress (ANC)." World Book Advanced. World Book, 2013. Web. 13 Feb. 2013.


Pettigrew, Thomas F. "Apartheid." World Book Advanced. World Book, 2013. Web. 13 Feb. 2013.



"Treason Trial." World Book Advanced. World Book, 2013. Web. 14 Feb. 2013.