SOLIDS

Science

Solid


    Solid is one of the four fundamental states of matter (the others being liquid, gas, and plasma). It is characterized by structural rigidity and resistance to changes of shape or volume.


Details and examples of solids

    -Stretch-Some solids such as metal copper can be stretched into long thin wire.

    -Almost all solids have some type of orderly arrangement of particles at the atomic level

    -Different solids have particularly properties such as stretch, strength, or hardness.

    - A table is a solid object

    -A pencil or chair is also a solid

Liquids

liquid-composed of molecules that move freely among themselves but do not tend to separate like those of gases; neither gaseous nor solid.


-Water is one of the best examples of a liquid

-Coke is also a popular liquid

-Sweet tea is a common liquid found in the south


-A liquid always has the same shape as its container.

-Moves freely

-Not easily compressible



Gases

Gases-

    A pure gas may be made up of individual atoms (e.g. a noble gas like neon), elemental molecules made from one type of atom (e.g. oxygen), or compound molecules made from a variety of atoms (e.g. carbon dioxide). A gas mixture would contain a variety of pure gases much like the air.

    -Nitrogen is a common gas -Hydrogen is also a common gas

    -The gas helium is less dense than air.

    -Most gases are invisible -Like liquids, gases can flow but, unlike solids or liquids gases will not stay where they are put.


Plasma

Plasma-an ionized gas consisting of positive ions and free electrons in proportions resulting in more or less no overall electric charge, typically at low pressures (as in the upper atmosphere and in fluorescent lamps) or at very high temperatures (as in stars and nuclear fusion reactors).


Lighting is a great example of Plasma.

Welding arc's have plasma


-Plasma are made up of electrons

-Mobile charged particles

-can be found in comets

Bose Einstein condensate

BEC-is a state of matter of a dilute gas of bosons cooled to temperatures very close to absolute zero.

-Matter

-Separates atoms

BEC tracks back to 1924


Examples

Cold liquid helium

-Superconductors