Computing Hardware

The history

Tim Berners-Lee

Tim Berners-Lee was the creator of the world wide web. He is a computer scientist.He was knighted by Queen Elizabeth. He made a proposal for an information management system in March 1989.
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Early life

Tim was born in London, England. His parents worked on the first commercially-built computer. A keen trainspotter as a child, he learnt about electronics from tinkering with a model railway
World Wide Web Turns 25: Inteview with inventor Sir Tim Berners-Lee

The Four Generations Of Computers

The First Generation

The first computers used vacuum tubes for circuitry and magnetic drums for memory, and were often enormous, taking up entire rooms. They were very expensive to operate and in addition to using a great deal of electricity, generated a lot of heat, which was often the cause of malfunctions.
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The Second Generation

Transistors replaced vacuum tubes and ushered in the second generation of computers. The transistor was invented in 1947 but did not see widespread use in computers until the late 1950s. The transistor was far superior to the vacuum tube, allowing computers to become smaller, faster, cheaper, more energy-efficient and more reliable than their first-generation predecessors. Though the transistor still generated a great deal of heat that subjected the computer to damage, it was a vast improvement over the vacuum tube. Second-generation computers still relied on punched cards for input and printouts for output.
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The Third Generation

Instead of punched cards and printouts, users interacted with third generation computers through keyboards and monitors and interfaced with an operating system, which allowed the device to run many different applications at one time with a central program that monitored the memory. Computers for the first time became accessible to a mass audience because they were smaller and cheaper than their predecessors.
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The Fourth Generation

The microprocessor brought the fourth generation of computers, as thousands of integrated circuits were built onto a single silicon chip. What in the first generation filled an entire room could now fit in the palm of the hand. The Intel 4004 chip, developed in 1971, located all the components of the computer—from the central processing unit and memory to input/output controls—on a single chip.
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Alan Turing

Alan was born on 23 June 1912 – 7 June 1954 he was a British pioneering computer scientist, mathematician, logician, cryptanalyst, philosopher, mathematical biologist, and marathon and ultra distance runner. He was highly influential in the development of computer science, providing a formalisation of the concepts of "algorithm" and "computation" with the Turing machine, which can be considered a model of a general purpose computer. Turing is widely considered to be the father of theoretical computer science and artificial intelligence.
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Alan Turing: Great Minds

Inputs & Outputs

Input devices allow us to enter raw data into a computer. The computer processes the data and then produces outputs that we can understand using an output device. Input devices can be manual or automatic.
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Input and output devices

Rom And Ram

ROM

ROM is memory that cannot be changed by a program or user. ROM retains its memory even after the computer is turned off. For example, ROM stores the instructions for the computer to start up when it is turned on again.

RAM

RAM is a fast temporary type of memory in which programs, applications and data are stored. Here are some examples of what's stored in RAM:

  • the operating system
  • applications
  • the graphical user interface (GUI)

If a computer loses power, all data stored in its RAM is lost.

Parts Of A Computer

Raspberry Pi

What is a Raspberry Pi? (old version)

Rapid prototypes

EVALUATION

It gives us information about things but you could have added more information. I liked all the videos because they worked and gave more information. 8/10 :)