Food Safety

Designed by: Melena Gutierrez 8th Period

Sanitation

Sanitation is very important in preparing food, without sanitizing you can contaminant the food and cause someone very serious illness. The initial process is making sure you are using a chemical such as bleach to clean your kitchen utensils, Soaking them in hot water and a cleaning solution for specific amount of time. Also if using bleach do not mix ammonia since it could let harmful gases.


Sanitizing after working with raw meat is also very important, you should always surfaces if they have had direct contact with raw foods.

Contamiants

They're 3 types of contaminations chemical, physical, and biological. Chemical contamination is when food is effected by environmental contaminates such as pesticides. Physical contamination is when foreign bodies become mixed into the food. Lastly biological contamination is the most common its when pathogens like bacteria grow in food. They can cause illness if not handled properly.

They're different ways to prevent foodborne illness such as regular hand-washing, cleaning surfaces and utensils, and avoiding cross contamination.

Food Infection v.s Intoxication

The most common of foodborne illness is food infection, it is caused by pathogens growing inside the intestines. Symptoms for microbial infections are not usually seen until 12-72 hours later because the bacteria need time to multiply.

Food Intoxication is when chemicals, toxic metals, or natural toxins that are produced by microorganisms and contaminate food. Some toxins occur naturally. Symptoms of intoxication appear within a few hours.

Pathogens

  • The 8 most common bacteria that relate to foodborne illnesses are Salmonella, Campylobacter, Shigella, E. coli, Clostridium Botulinum, Vibrio, Listeria Monocytogenes, and Clostridium Perfringens.
  • They're are over 40,000 cases are reported in the U.S. every of Salmonella. Campylobacter is one of the most common causes of foodborne illness in the U.S. The Shigella bacteria lives in the intestines. E. coli lives in the colon of mammals. Clostridium Botulinum is the most poisonous substance in the world. Vibro is commonly found in seafood/shellfish that are raw and undercooked. Listeria Monocytogenes can grow in low temperatures like the refrigerator. Clostridium Perfringens cases involve cafeteria settings where food is prepared ahead of time.
  • Viruses

    The most common viruses that cause foodborne illnesses are Hepatitis A, Norovirus, and Rotavirus.

    Hepatitis A is a inflammation of the liver. You can contract it by fecal-oral routine, there is a vaccines to prevent this illness. Norovirus is highly contagious and can be spread through person to person contact. It can be transmitted through food and beverages. Rotavirus causes over 20% of diarrhea related deaths worldwide.

    FAT TOM

    Conditions that affect the growth of microorganisms are represented in the acronym FAT TOM. F- Food A- Acidity T- Temperature T- Time O- Oxygen M- Moisture

    Microorganisms don't like acidic environments. The food danger zone is between 41-135F. Microorganisms need time to grow and multiply so there is a lag time. Aerobic are microorganisms that require oxygen and anaerobic are microorganisms that grow with out oxygen. Foodborne microorganisms require water to grow. The less water the less likely microorganisms are to grow.

    Minimum Temperatures

    The FDA has established minimum temperatures for cooked foods. 165F is the minimum cooked temperature for poultry, fish, pasta, and stuffing. 155F is the minimum temperature for ground meats and egg that are held a length of time before eaten. 145F is the minimum temperature for steaks, fish, roast, and eggs that are cooked immediately. 135F is the minimum temperature for cooked fruits, veggies, and ready to eat foods.

    Cross Contamination

    Cross contamination is when harmful bacteria transfers from food to food, cutting boards, surfaces, or utensils.

    To prevent this from happening always wash your hands before and after you handle foods, wash cutting boards, use different cutting boards for meats and produce. Always remember to use a clean plate. Freeze or refrigerate foods with in 2 hours, in a shallow clean container to prevent bacteria.

    Handling and Preparing Meats

  • Fresh meat should be kept between 32° F and 36° F for best quality.
  • Frozen meat should be stored at 0° or below and be kept frozen. Do not allow frozen meat to thaw. Don't store meat above any other food.
  • The way to make sure your food is safe is to make sure that the meat is cooked to the proper temperature. Fresh raw beef should be bright red and firm. Do not un freeze poultry until you're ready to cook. Food should be stored at 41F or lower or 135F or higher.
  • Health Codes

    Management carries the responsibly of protecting their workers health by ensuring food is fresh and environment is clean. The Model Food Code is a code that provides best practices for keeping foodborne illnesses away. Another code is the AMC it stresses the importance for preventing measures to ensure food safety.