Development of Elementary-Aged Kids
Between the ages of 6 and 12 physical growth is slow, but steady. By age 12, the average child is 5 feet tall and weighs around 80 pounds. Generally, girls are taller and heavier than boys by the end of middle childhood.
According to Piaget, elementary-aged children are leaving the pre-operational stage and entering the concrete operational stage of cognitive development. During this stage, between the ages of 7 and 11, children can reason deductively and deal with the world in the way they see it. They cannot reason abstractly nor do problem solving in their heads. The children become capable of conservation, seriation (putting things in order), and classifications (detect relations).
According to Lawrence Kohlberg, a child's moral development is closely related to cognitive development. Most children in elementary are in the conventional stage of moral development, although all children develop at different paces. In this stage, the children want to please others, such as teachers, parents, or peers. In this stage, children live strictly by the rules and are obsessed with the idea of fairness.
The psychosocial development theory of Erik Erikson explains how a person interacts with the world and those around him. Erikson created eight major dilemma that are commonly experienced by all people over the course of life. Elementary school children are in the stage 4 of Industry versus Inferiority. During this stage, children are learning many new things. Either they will feel industrious as they learn to read, write and do math, or they will feel inferior when they belong in the low reading group or make poor grades.
During elementary school children begin to develop and advance their communication and vocabulary. In the school environment, children are immersed in a social setting that allows them to learn new things and how to work with others.