Why Does My Back Hurt?

Causes of Back Pain, Prevent Back Pain

lower back pain

Causes of Back Pain

Back pain as one of the most common medical conditions, affecting an estimated 80 percent of all Americans at some point during their lives. What makes back pain particularly troublesome is that it is an equal opportunity medical problem because it affects people of all ages, genders, and ethnic backgrounds. If you have unexplained back pain you should contact a spinal specialist near you today.

There is no single answer to the causes of back pain as each case differs depending on the patient. To make matters even more complicated, your pain may not always be from your back, even if that’s where the pain occurs. In fact, your pain may stem from a completely different area. With that being said, a variety of physical and mental conditions can affect a person’s spine, resulting in pain through out the entire spine.

Prevent Back Pain

spinal cord

Structure of The Spine

The adult spine consists of a stack of 24 bones called vertebrae plus the bones of the sacrum and coccyx. These bones support the human body and protect the spinal cord’s major column of nerve fibers connected to the brain. These fibers run through the vertebrae via the spinal canal. A disc, made of cartilage and filled with a gel-like material that acts like a shock absorber, exists between each vertebra. Ligaments, muscles, tendons and small joints called facets hold the vertebrae together.

standing posture

Poor Posture

Poor posture is one of the leading causes of back pain? You can help alleviate - or even help prevent – back pain by making strives to improve your postural awareness, as well as making small changes in your day-to-day life. Correct sitting and standing postures are one and the same – you need to keep your head and shoulders erect and balanced, as well as stand up straight and look straight ahead. Try to avoid sitting or standing for long periods of time while at work. Instead, be sure to take periodic rest breaks and change positions as needed. Always position yourself close to your desk and work at a comfortable height.

Big picture

Mental Health Issues

Stress can exacerbate back pain. When stressed, the muscles within your back tighten. With enough stress and enough tightening, you will eventually begin to experience moderate to severe pain. Other mental health issues such as depression, anxiety, sleep deprivation or insomnia can result in increased back pain.

health issues

Poor Diet

Stomach pain from an unhealthy diet can also trigger back pain. That’s because the muscles of the stomach and back interconnect. Problems that affect the stomach and belly – a poor diet, over-consumption of alcohol, convulsive nausea - can result in back pain. A 2014 study found that approximately 31 percent of women and 25 percent of men experiencing back pain also had gastrointestinal complaints such as abdominal pain or food intolerance. The link between nutrition and back pain results from inflammation; foods high in fat and sugar trigger inflammation throughout the body, including the lower back.

Your back pain may be due to dehydration. The bones of your spine have discs between them, each partly made up of a jelly-like substance that is 90 percent water. Your body needs a steady stream of fluid coming in to help keep that cushioning intact. When your body becomes dehydrated, those discs become flatter and less cushiony, which can lead to back pain.

lower back pinched nerve

A Pinched Nerve

A pinched nerve occurs when the surrounding bone, muscle, cartilage or other tissue puts pressure on a nerve. The spine, with its complex skeletal structure, can make locating the source of the pain somewhat difficult because some nerves extend throughout the body. Nerves from the neck extend all the way to your fingertips Depending on the exact nerve, as well as the extent of the pressure, a pinched nerve can cause a myriad of symptoms including mild to severe discomfort, shooting pains, tingling, muscle weakness, and atrophy or withering of affected muscles. In more severe cases, a pinched nerve in the back can result in a loss of motor control and reflexes in the hands.

Patients can avoid pinched nerves by maintaining good posture, remaining fit and at a reasonable weight, and avoid excessive strain on the back. Treatment options for pinched nerves include physical therapy, rest, and medication to relax the muscle and reduce inflammation. In more severe cases surgery may be considered as a treatment option.

spine diseases

A Herniated Disc

Your back pain may be a result of a herniated disc. A herniated disc occurs when a disc protrusion ruptures or herniates through the wall of the intervertebral disc. When this happens, viscous material from the interior of the disc leaks into the spinal canal, where it can impinge on nerves and cause pain and other problems, including partial paralysis. Disc herniations typically occur in two stages. The first stage occurs when the disc’s interior material pushes into the thick outer wall creating a bulge. The second stage of the process occurs when the bulge becomes larger. During this stage, spine experts classify it as a disc protrusion. If the protrusion continues to expand, eventually it can become a herniated or ruptured disc.

Big picture

Degenerative Disc Disease

Degenerative disc disease is one of the most common spinal conditions that people face. In most cases, this occurrence is the result of the normal aging process. Degenerative disc disease occurs due to the deterioration and structural change of the cushioning intervertebral discs located between individual vertebrae throughout the spine. Over time, the discs become weaker and more fragile from wear and tear caused by a lifetime of twisting and turning. In addition to age, genetics may also play a role in causing degenerative disc disease.

Other causes of degenerative disc disease include trauma, repetitive stress, and disease.

Degenerative disc disease can affect any part of the spine.

Lumbar degenerative disc disease refers to disc degeneration in the lower back. This is one of the most common causes of lower back pain, which is sometimes referred to as lumbago. Meanwhile, cervical degenerative disc disease refers to degenerative disc disease located in the neck. Degeneration of the disc tissue also makes the disc more susceptible to herniations, or rupturing of the discs. Symptoms of degenerative disc disease include pain and restricted range of motion.

While aging is a natural and unavoidable process, you can still take steps to minimize the onset and impact of degenerative disc disease. You can help lower your risk of experiencing degenerative disc disease by maintaining a healthy weight, exercising regularly, having a nutritious and balanced diet, quitting smoking, and avoiding activities that have a high risk of resulting in back and neck injuries.

Without intervention, degenerative disc disease will progress by ultimately involving the spinal joints, called facet joints. In mild cases, specific exercises for degenerative disc disease may help solve this issue. Other treatment options range from the use of medications to surgery in some severe cases. Today, many spine specialists offer minimally invasive alternative treatment options such as lumbar disc replacement.

Big picture

Spinal Stenosis

In spinal stenosis, the spinal canal narrows, and puts pressure on the nerves branching out from the spine, and sometimes on the spinal cord itself, causing pain, tingling, numbness, and weakness in the extremities. Spinal stenosis occurs predominantly in two locations of the spine and is defined by the location. Lumbar spinal stenosis occurs in the lumbar or lower region of the back, and cervical spinal stenosis affects the cervical or neck region.

The structures that contribute to and cause spinal stenosis include the discs between the vertebrae, the facet joints, and the ligaments, which help to connect the vertebrae to each other. The narrowing of the spinal canal may result from abnormal bone growth and/or tissue growth. Most cases of spinal stenosis develop slowly over many years due to the normal aging process and generalized wear and tear of the spine. Some causes of acquired spinal stenosis include osteoarthritis, bone spurs, herniated discs, spondylolisthesis, trauma to the spine, and normal aging. There is also a less common hereditary form of spinal stenosis in which the diameter of the spinal canal is unnaturally small from birth. By living a healthy lifestyle with proper exercise, good nutrition, and maintaining proper weight, you can help prevent symptoms of spinal stenosis from occurring.

Spinal stenosis treatment options include: physical therapy, spinal stenosis exercises, medications, and lumbar steroid injections. In cases that fail to improve with these treatment measures, and experienced spine surgeon may suggest surgery to correct the condition.

spine specialists spinal x-ray

When Should You See a Spine Specialist

When someone continuously experiences back pain – whether chronic back pain or sudden severe pain – they may wonder when they should seek help. In some cases, people knowingly prolong their suffering due to fear and anxiety about possible surgery. While fear may be a normal response to any health issue, avoiding the underlying issue can actually increase the chances that a person will need to undergo spinal surgery.

Most often, back pain severity will help tell a person when it is time to consult a doctor for relief. But there are also other situations when a person should consider seeing a spinal physician such as:

· A High Fever: A fever unexplained by illness, when paired with back pain, may be a sign of a possible infection within the bones or disks of the spine. While this is relatively uncommon, it is still better to be safe than sorry.

· Trauma: If a person experiences back pain after an accident or fall, they should seek a proper assessment from a spine specialist. Continuing normal activities without receiving a full evaluation and appropriate treatment can result in further damage or a slower recovery period.

· Numbness or Weakness: Experiencing numbness or weakness anywhere in the body may actually be a sign of nerve irritation or damage. In addition, it can be a sign of more significant irritation of the nerve rather than having just pain alone. If numbness or weakness does not disappear in a short period of time, it is best to see a spine specialist for an evaluation to lessen the risk of long lasting or permanent nerve damage.

· Unexplained Weight Loss: Anytime a person loses weight unexpectedly and dramatically, it could be a harbinger of a more serious medical issue. When paired with back pain, a doctor will want to rule out infection or tumors as a possible cause for back pain and weight loss.

· Prolonged Back Pain: 90% of back pain cases improve within six weeks. But if your pain remains unchanged or worsens, it is time to call your doctor to determine the underlying causes. If your back pain wakes you up in the middle of the night, this can be a sign of a problem beyond just normal back pain.

Other Other Causes of Back Pain

A wide spectrum of conditions can cause back pain. Identifiable spinal conditions such as disc herniation, scoliosis, spinal stenosis and spinal cord injuries may be the most common, but they are far from the only causes of back pain. For the most effective diagnosis and treatment of back pain, you should seek a consultation with a spine expert.

Do not avoid seeking medical care when your back pain shows any of these symptoms, receiving a proper diagnosis can be the first step towards an optimal recovery. In addition, medical care will also decrease your risk of further damage or injury to your back. If you have back pain without these symptoms, you should seek medical help when you begin to develop symptoms that affect your daily life. You may find that there is a simple solution to get you back on your feet.