Prenatal and Newborn Development
Alicia Stack * EDU/305 * Nov. 16, 2015 * Stephanie Hofeling
Prenatal and Newborn Milestones
Early development of a child starts in the early stages of pregnancy. The first trimester the fetus develops at:
3-4 weeks - a primitive brain develops
5-8 weeks - external structures form, sense of touch begins to develop and the embryo now has the ability to move
9-12 weeks - the fetus increases in size and behavioral capacities develop
During the second trimester, 13- 24 weeks, the fetus continues to increase in size, fetal movement is more pronounced and the mother will begin to notice. Most brain neurons are now present as well as the eyes develop a blinking rhythm and respond to light. The ears can hear and react to sounds.
During the third trimester, 25 - 30 weeks, the fetus again has increased size, long maturity and sensory and behavioral capacities have expanded due to the rapid brain development.
During the newborn stages the infants develop reflexes such as sucking, rooting, and grasping with increased strength, known as palmar grasp. Sensory capacities are well developed such as touch and strong sense of smell. Sensitivity to sounds increases after a few months of birth. Visions capacity is blurry even from close-up but focuses more later in months.
Fetal development begins at the moment of conception. within a matter of weeks a primitive brain and later on other primary functions have developed and are in preparation for the survival of the infant at birth.
Reflexes such as sucking development in the womb and well after birth. By a four months it is replaced with voluntary sucking. (Berk., 2012)
Babies develop sensitivity to sounds during the second trimester and can distinguish between their mother's voice.
Stimulating Development in the First Year
Tips For Parents
Parents are the first stimulant in the development of their children. You can stimulate your child's development by
- talking with your baby as infants love to hear the parents' voices
- mimic sounds and use words to develop language
- read picture books to your baby as this will visual stimulate present more language and sounds
- give your baby a sense of security by holding and cuddling with your baby
- play when your baby is alert and calm and always take breaks to allow your baby to rest
(Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2015)
Cultural Influences on Child Development
Cultural influences varies from one society to the next and each of those with their own way of living, resources and expectations held among children. The way a parent raises their child greatly impacts their social and academic development. Children from unstable troubled homes often look stability elsewhere. This often can lead to childhood depression which can negatively affect their mood and attitudes towards their education. (Berk., 2012)
Ethnicity, socioeconomic status, gender, abilities, stereotypes all contribute to different aspects of a child's development.
Nature Versus Nurture
Berk., L. E. (2012). Infants, Children, and Adolescents. Pearson Education, Inc.
Boundless. (2015). Cultural and Societal Influences on Child Development. Retrieved from Boundless.com: https://www.boundless.com/psychology/textbooks/boundless-psychology-textbook/human-development-14/infancy-and-childhood-72/cultural-and-societal-influences-on-child-development-281-12816/
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2015). Child Development: Milestones. Retrieved from CDC.gov: http://www.cdc.gov/ncbddd/childdevelopment/positiveparenting/infants.html
T. M McDevitt,; J. E. Ormrod. (2010). Nature and Nurture. Retrieved from Education.com: http://www.education.com/reference/article/nature-nurture/