By Jenna Parr

Structure of DNA and RNA

  • Double-stranded
  • Nitrogen Bases are A, T, G, and C
  • Deoxyribose sugar
  • Cannot leave the nucleus
  • Single-stranded
  • Nitrogen bases are A, U, G, and C
  • Ribose sugar
  • Can leave the nucleus
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  • Heredity is the passing of DNA from generation to generation. Ex: the 1st picture
  • Traits are characteristics you inherit from your parents. Ex: the 2nd picture
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  • Dominant is the allele that masks/hides the other. Ex: "A" would be dominant in the allele, Aa.
  • Recessive is the allele that is masked/hidden. Ex: "a" would be recessive in the allele, Aa.


  • Homozygous is when the alleles are the same. Ex: AA, aa
  • Heterozygous is when the alleles are different. Ex: Aa

Punnett Squares

  • A monohybrid punnett square is used to determine the genotypes and phenotypes an organism will have.
  • A phenotype is the organism's physical appearance. Ex: brown hair
  • A genotype is the organism's allele combination. Ex: AA, Aa, aa

Complimentary DNA and RNA Strands

Complimentary strands of DNA and mRNA match up like puzzle pieces. Ex:


When DNA replicates, it has a complimentary strand. Ex:

  1. First strand: ATGCGCTAG
  2. Second strand: TACGCGATC

X-Linked Disorders

An X-Linked disorder is a disorder caused by a mutation on the X chromosome. Ex: Hemophilia A and B, Hunter's Disease, and Color Blindness

DNA Replication

  1. The DNA opens or "unzips" at the hydrogen bonds and copies in both directions.
  2. Base pairs are bonded until entire chain is copied.
  3. Since the DNA is copied in both directions, 2 copies of DNA are made.
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Protein Synthesis

Step 1. Transcription:

  1. Transcription takes place in the nucleus - mRNA gets the code from DNA for a specific protein.
Step 2. Translation:

  1. mRNA carries the code into the cytoplasm and meets up with rRNA at the ribosome.
  2. Once mRNA and rRNA join up in the cytoplasm, they take the code and translate it into instructions for making proteins for the cell.
  3. Next, tRNAs bring the specific anit-codon to mRNA/rRNA and add the amino acids together to make the particular protein.

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Genetic Engineering

Genetic engineering is a way to genetically alter an organism by inserting new DNA or other materials. Ex: genetic engineering to produce insulin

Steps to genetic engineering to produce insulin:

  1. Researchers found part of a human chromosome that has a gene for making insulin.
  2. They carefully cut out the gene using a restriction enzyme.
  3. Gene is put into bacterial DNA.
  4. The plasmid with the insulin producing gene is placed into a new bacterium.
  5. The bacterium grew and multiplied producing a large number of bacteria with the insulin producing gene.

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DNA Fingerprinting

  • Used to determine evolutionary relationships, paternity relationships, crime scene matches, and disease identification and therapy.
  • You can find DNA in blood, saliva, hair, fingernails, and toothbrushes.
  • Gel Electrophoresis is a method for separation and analysis of macromolecules and their fragments, based on their size and charge.
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Mitosis (2n-2n)

Mitosis is when 1 diploid cell makes 2 exact diploid cells. It is a type of asexual reproduction and produces somatic cells. The steps are:

  1. Prophase - Chromosomes condense and prepare
  2. Metaphase - Meet in the middle
  3. Anaphase - Pull away
  4. Telophase - The end and cytokinesis

(A comparison is below)

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Meiosis (2n-n)

Meiosis is when 1 diploid cell makes 4 haploid sex cells. It is a type of sexual reproduction. The steps are:

  1. Prophase 1 - Chromosomes condense and prepare
  2. Metaphase 1 - Meet in the middle
  3. Anaphase 1 - Pull away
  4. Telophase 1 - The end and cytokinesis


  1. Prophase 2 - Chromosomes condense and prepare
  2. Metaphase 2 - Meet in the middle
  3. Anaphase 2 - Pull away
  4. Telophase 2 - The end and cytokinesis

Crossing Over occurs in Prophase 1. It gives us genetic variation.

(A comparison is above)


Gametes are sex cells. Ex: egg and sperm

Haploid and Diploid

  • Diploid = 2n = Full Set of Chromosomes Ex: somatic cells
  • Haploid = 1n = Half the number of chromosomes Ex: sex cells

Gregor Mendel

  • He is considered the Father of Genetics.
  • He was the first to scientifically prove parents pass some of their DNA/genes/traits to their offspring.

Watson and Crick

  • Watson and Crick discovered DNA.


  • A mutation is a permanent change in DNA.

(Examples below)