Ecstasy

(MDMA, Molly, XTC)

Matt Zifchak & Beth Greenwood

What is Ecstasy?

Ecstasy is a highly addictive psychoactive drug that is classified as a hallucinogen, which means it can cause hallucinations. In more recent years it has become more commonly used by the younger more vulnerable individuals of the population. Ecstasy is the pill form of a drug called Methylenedioxymethamphetamine or MDMA, and it is also is sometimes called XTC and/or Molly (Dilger).
Your Brain On MDMA
Source: Your Brain on MDMA. ASAP Science. N.p., n.d. Web. 7 Apr. 2016.
<https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=jEAr7ThsYew>

How is Ecstasy Used in Medicine?

Currently there is no accepted use of Ecstasy for medical purposes, but in recent years government regulators have licensed a small number of laboratories to run test of potential medical uses of MDMA. A recent study at the Medical University of South Carolina has shown how MDMA therapy has affected soldiers suffering from post traumatic stress. The studied showed that there was approximately a 75% drop in symptoms the victims were suffering from Post Traumatic Stress such as a decrease in anxiety, depression and nightmares. Although there is no current use of Ecstasy in the medical world recent studies have offered promising results for its future in the field (Carey).
Figure 1. The Fight Against PTSD (Meta Science News)

How Does Ecstasy React With Other Substances?

There have been very few studies on MDMA reaction with other substances but the few studies that have been done suggest that MDMA has potentially fatal reacts with mono amine oxidase inhibitors and it is still unknown the full affects it has when used with over the counter and prescription drugs. Although the body can usually tolerate ecstasy on its own, there is a higher chance the your body with be unable to function when you take multiple drugs together (NIDA).

How is Ecstasy Administered?

There are multiple ways that ecstasy can be administered and when it reaches the brain it is able to get past the brains capillaries that are suppose to protect the brain from dangerous substances. The most common way it is taken is orally when it is on pill form, it can be hard to identify an ecstasy pill because it can come in various shapes and sizing. MDMA can also come in a gel cap or powder form but they are not as common to find. When in powder form it can be snorted but this known to be more painful to administer but it does cause the high to start sooner after it enters the body. In extreme cases ecstasy is smoked or inject but this is considered an unusual and more complicated way for the body to receive and process the drug (Dilger).
Figure 2. Various Designs of Molly Pill (CNN)

What Are The Physical and Psychological Effects?

Ecstasy can cause-

-muscles to tense

-increase in blood pressure and heart rate

-nausea

-blurry vision

-increased body temperature

-chills or sweating

-faintness

(NIDA for Teens)

Effects: Short Term VS. Long Term

Ecstasy usually reaches the brain in about 15 minutes.

-increases serotonin, dopamine, and norepinephrine levels

-people often become very alert and hyper

-increase in "emotional closeness and empathy"

-can lead to confusion, depression, anxiety and problems with memory and attention in the long term

(NIDA for Teens)

Big image
Figure 3. Visual layout of how ecstasy affects the body (Hernandez)

What is the Tolerance/Withdrawal/Overdose of Ecstasy?

Scientists do not know too much about the tolerance/withdrawal/overdose symptoms and effects on humans.

-when tested on rodents, ecstasy had a l/d 50 of 100-300 mg/kg

-l/d 50 is the amount of a substance it takes to kill 50% of a population

(NIDA for Teens)

Laws and Social Concerns

Ecstasy is considered a Schedule I drug, therefore its use in any form is illegal throughout the entire country. It is considered a a Schedule I drug due to its highly addictive properties that can cause severe physical and emotional pain. Schedule I drugs are classifieds as the most dangerous drugs and if caught with these particular drugs punishments can be up to 20 years maximum sentence and a $1,000,000 fine, although most cases do not have punishments that extreme. Despite its destructive properties and potential punishments it can bring it is still considered by society as the popular club drug that's known for getting the partied going (Office of Diversion Control. U.S Department of Justice).

Support Systems for Addicted Individuals

Addiction to MDMA is a serious issue that must be confronted with professional medical and therapeutic help. Don't hesitate to receive help before it is too late.

Some Support Places include-

-Substance Abuse Treatment Facility Locator; http://www.findtreatment.samhsa.gov/

-National Suicide Prevention Lifeline at 1-800-273-TALK

(NIDA for Teens)

Works Cited

Carey, Benedict. "A 'Party Drug' May Help the Brain Cope With Trauma." New York Times 19 Nov. 2012: n. pag. Print.

"Controlled Substance Schedule." Office of Diversion Control. U.S Department of Justice, 2016. Web. 27 Mar. 2016. <http://www.deadiversion.usdoj.gov/schedules/>.

Dilger, Avani, ed. "What is Ecstasy." Teen Health and Wellness. Rosen, June 2015. Web. 23 Mar. 2016. <http://www.teenhealthandwellness.com/article/147?search=ecstasy>.

Dilger, Avani G., ed. "The Effects of Drugs and Alcohol." Teen Health and Wellness: Real Life, Real Answers. N.p., June 2015. Web. 27 Mar. 2016. <http://www.teenhealthandwellness.com/article/278/2?search=ecstasy>.

Hernandez, Martha. "How Ecstasy Affects the Body." Penn State University. N.p., n.d. Web. 7 Apr. 2016. <https://sites.psu.edu/siowfa13/tag/mdma/>.

"Hidden Dangers of The Party Drug Molly." CNN. N.p., n.d. Web. 7 Apr. 2016. <http://www.cnn.com/2013/11/22/health/9-things-molly-drug/>.

"MDMA Assisted Psychotherapy for the Treatment of PTSD." Meta Science News. N.p., n.d. Web. 7 Apr. 2016. <http://news.meta.com/2015/07/20/mdma-assisted-psychotherapy-for-the-treatment-of-ptsd/>.

"Print MDMA (Ecstasy or Molly)." NIDA for teens. National Inststitute on Drug Abuse, 10 Mar. 2016. Web. 23 Mar. 2016. <http://teens.drugabuse.gov/drug-facts/mdma-ecstasy-or-molly>.

Your Brain on MDMA. ASAP Science. N.p., n.d. Web. 7 Apr. 2016. <https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=jEAr7ThsYew>.