Language Arts 6th Grade

What We've Learned This Year! by Luke Broussard

Chapter 1: Subject and Predicate, Kinds of Sentences

Subject

A sentence is a word group that contains a subject and a verb and that expresses a complete thought. A subject tells whom or what the sentence is about. The simple subject is the main word or word group that tells whom or what the sentence is about.


Examples:

A boy ran around the park. (subject-a boy)

A girl went swimming in the pool. (simple subject- girl)

Predicate

The predicate of a sentence tells something about the subject. The simple predicate, or verb, is the main word or word group in the complete predicate.


Examples:

The author wrote the popular book. (predicate-wrote the popular book)

The nurse helped the patient carefully. (simple predicate- helped)

Kinds of Sentences

A declarative sentence makes a statement and ends with period. An imperative sentence gives a command or makes a request. Most imperative sentences end with a period. A strong command ends with an exclamation point. An interrogative sentence asks a question and ends with a question mark. An exclamatory sentence shows excitement or expresses strong feeling and ends with an exclamation point.


Examples:

I love ice cream. (declarative sentence)

Go clean your room. (imperative sentence)

How are you? (interrogative sentence)

Watch out for that bus! (exclamatory sentence)

Chapter 2: Noun, Pronoun, Adjective

Noun

A noun is a word or word group that is used to name a person, place, thing, or idea . A proper noun names a particular person, place, thing, or idea and begins with a capital letter. A common noun names any one group of persons, places, things, or ideas. It usually isn't capitalized.


Examples:

Have you ever gone to New York before? (New York- noun)

Taylor loves to make people happy. (Taylor- proper noun)

Do you play baseball? (baseball- common noun)

Pronoun

A pronoun is a word that is used in place of a one or more nouns or pronouns.


Example:

The hummingbirds fly away. They migrate every year. (they- pronoun)

Adjective

An adjective is a word used to modify (describe) a noun or pronoun. A proper adjective is formed from a proper noun and begins with a capital letter.


Examples:

You have pretty blue eyes. (blue-adjective)

Do you like Mexican food? (Mexican-proper adjective)

Chapter 3: Verb, Adverb, Preposition, Conjunciton, Interjection

Verb

A verb is a word that expresses action or a state of being. An action verb expresses either physical or mental activity. A linking verb connects, or links, the subject to a word or word group that identifies or describes the subject.


Examples:

Luke tried to run, but fell. (run-verb)
The panda eats bamboo. (eats-action verb)

The monkey is very crazy. (is- linking verb)

Adverb

An adverb is a word that modifies a verb, an adjective, or another adverb.


Example:

He can talk quickly. (quickly-adverb)

Preposition

A preposition is a word that shows the relationship between a noun or a pronoun and another word in the sentence. The preposition, its object, and any modifiers of the object make up a prepositional phrase.


Examples:

Would you like to know about the Egyptians? (about-preposition)

I like the smell of the fresh cupcakes. (of the fresh cupcakes-prepositional phrase)

Conjunction

A conjunction is a word that joins words or groups of words.


Example:

I want to go the party, but I don't like the food. (but-conjunction)

Interjection

An interjection is a word that expresses emotion.


Examples:

Wow! That's so cool. (wow-interjection)

Oh, I'm sorry. (oh-interjection)

Chapter 4: Prepositional Phrases, Independent and Subordinate Clauses, Sentence Structure

The Phrase

A phrase is a group of related words that is used as a single part of speech and that does not contain both a verb and its subject.


Example:

We put the fruit in the box. (in the box-phrase)

Other Phrases

A prepositional phrase includes a preposition, the object of the preposition, and any modifiers of that object. A prepositional phrase that modifies a noun or pronoun is called an adjective phrase. A prepositional phrase that is used to modify a verb, an adjective, or an adverb is called an adverb phrase.


Examples:

We packed all of our belonging and put it in the bus. (in the bus-prepositional phrase)

Chunks of ice fell from the skyscraper. (of ice-adjective phrase)

We walk along the lake every Saturday. (along the lake-adverb phrase)

The Clause

A clause is a word group that contains a verb and its subject that is used as a sentence or as part of a sentence.


Example:

After he fed the puppy, Tom went outside to play. (after he fed the puppy-clause) (Tom went outside to play-clause)

Independent Clause

An independent clause expresses a complete thought and can stand by itself in the sentence.


Example:

After he fed the hamster, Brian went outside to play. (Brain went outside to play-independent clause)

Subordinate Clause

A subordinate (or dependent) clause does not express a complete thought and cannot stand by itself in a sentence.


Example:

Before the sun sets, I want to go swimming. (Before the sun sets-subordinate clause)

Other Clauses

An adjective clause is a subordinate clause that modifies a noun or pronoun. An adverb clause is a subordinate clause that modifies a verb, an adjective, or an adverb.


Examples:

I would like a dog that I could take for on long walks. (that I could take for on long walks- adjective clause)

He cleaned his room because it was very messy. (because it was very messy-adverb clause)

Sentence Structure

A simple sentence has one independent clause and no subordinate clause. A compound sentence consists of two or more independent clauses, usually joined by a comma and a connecting word. A complex sentence contains one independent clause and at least one subordinate clause. A sentence with two or more independent clauses and at least one subordinate clause is a compound-complex sentence.


Examples:

Argentina and Chile are in South America. (simple sentence)

I forgot my lunch, but Dad ran to the bus with it. (compound sentence)
When bees collect pollen, they fertilize the plants that they visit. (complex sentence)

I picked up the branches that has fallen during the storm, and Rosa mowed the grass. (compound-complex sentence)

Chapter 5: Direct and Indirect Objects, Subject Complements

Objects of Verbs

A direct object is a noun, pronoun, or word group that tells who or what receives the action of the verb. An indirect object is a noun, pronoun, or word group that usually comes between the verb and the direct object.


Examples:

He studied Abraham Lincoln in his history class. (Abraham Lincoln-direct object)

I gave that problem some thought. (problem-indirect object)

Subject Complements

A subject complement is a word or word group that is in the predicate and that identifies or describes the subject. A predicate nominative is a word or word group that is in the predicate and that identifies the subject or refers to it. A predicate adjective is an adjective that is in the predicate and that describes the subject.


Examples:

The airport appears very busy. (busy-subject complement)

Was the first runner-up really he? (he-predicate nominative)

The blanket felt soft and fuzzy. (soft, fuzzy-predicate adjective)

Chapter 6: Subject and Verb, Pronoun and Antecedent

Singular and Plural Words

Words that refer to one person, place, thing, or idea are generally singular in number. Words that refer to more than one person, place, thing, or idea are generally plural in number.


Examples:

beach-singular

beaches-plural

Agreement of Subject and Verb

A verb should agree in number with its subject. Singular subjects take singular verbs. Plural subjects take plural verbs.


Examples:

She plays the violin well. (She-subject; plays-verb)

They practice after school. (They-subject; practice-verb)

Indefinite Pronouns

A pronoun that does not refer to a definite person, place, thing, or idea is called an indefinite pronouns. The following indefinite pronouns are singular: anybody, anyone, anything, each, either, everybody, everyone, everything, neither, nobody, no one, nothing, one, somebody, someone, and something. The following indefinite pronouns are plural: both, few, many, several. The indefinite pronouns all, any, more, most, none, and some may be singular or plural, depending on their meaning in a sentence.


Examples:

One of the singers is from my home town. (one-singular I.P.)

Few of the guests are checking in. (few-plural I.P.)

All of the snow has melted. (all-singular I.P.)

All of the snowflakes have melted. (all-plural I.P.)

Compound Subjects

Subjects joined by and generally take a plural verb. Singular subjects that are joined by or or nor take a singular verb. Plural subjects joined by or or nor take a plural verb. When a singular subject and a plural subject are joined by or or nor, the verb agrees with the subject nearer the verb. When the subject follows the verb, find the subject and make sure that the verb agrees with it.


Examples:

Maroon and khaki are the school's colors. (red, blue-subject; are-verb)

A new marble statue or a fountain has been planned for the park. (statue, fountain- subject; has been planned-verb)

Tulips or pansies make a lovely border for a sidewalk. (tulips, pansies-subject; make-verb)

Either the engineers or their boss has made this mistake. (singular)

Either the boss or the engineers have made this mistake. (plural)

Don't and Doesn't

The word don't is the contraction of do not. Use don't with all plural subjects and with the pronouns I and you. The word doesn't is the contraction of does not. Use doesn't with all singular subjects except the pronouns I and you.


Examples:

I don't have the computers until tomorrow.

The hedgehog doesn't like the apple.

Agreement of Pronoun and Antecedent

A pronoun usually refers to a noun or another pronoun called its antecedent. A pronoun should agree in gender with its antecedent. A pronoun should agree with its antecedent in number. Use a singular pronoun to refer to two or more singular antecedents joined by or or nor. Use a plural pronoun to refer to two or more antecedents joined by and.


Examples:

Rosa said she lost her glasses. (she, her-antecedents)

Either Miguel or Randall has his paintings on display. (his-singular antecedent)

Have Chelsea and Susan tried on their new outfits? (they-plural antecedent)

Chapter 7: Principal Parts, Regular and Irregular Verbs, Tense

Principal Parts of Verbs

The four basic forms of a verb are called the principal parts of the verb. The four principal parts of a verb are the base form, the present participle, the past, and the past participle.


Examples:

start-base form

[is] starting-present participle

started-past

[have] started-past participle

Regular Verbs

A regular verb forms its past and past participle by adding -d or -ed to the base form.


Example:

cause----caused (caused-regular verb)

Irregular Verbs

An irregular verb forms its past and past participle in some other way than by adding -d or -ed to the base form. An irregular verb forms its past and past participle in one of the following ways: changing vowels, changing consonants, changing vowels and consonants, and making no change.

Examples:
win-base; won-past; have won-past participle --changing vowels
make-base; made-past; have made-past participle --changing consonants
catch-base; caught-past; have caught-past participle --changing vowels and consonants
burst-base; burst-past; have burst-past participle --making no change

Tense

The tense of a verb indicates the time of the action verb or the state of being that is expressed by the verb. The six tenses are present, past, future, present perfect, past perfect, and future perfect.
Past Perfect- existing or happening before a specific time in the past
Past- existing or happening in the past
Present Perfect- existing or happening sometime before now; may be continuing now
Present- existing or happening now
Future Perfect- existing or happening before a specific time in the future
Future- existing or happening in the future

Examples:
I wear-present
I wore-past
I will wear-future
I have worn-present perfect
I had worn-past perfect
I will have worn-future perfect

Progressive Forms

Each of the six tenses also has a form called the progressive form. The progressive form expresses continuing action or state of being. It is made up of the appropriate tense of the verb be plus the present participle of a verb. The progressive is not a separate tense. It is just a different form that each tense can take.

Examples:
am, are, is wearing-present progressive
was, were wearing-past progressive
will be wearing-future progressive
has, have been wearing-present perfect progressive
had been wearing-past perfect progressive
will have been wearing-future perfect progressive

Consistency of Tense

Do not change needlessly from one tense to another.

Examples:
The cat jumped onto the counter and steals the sandwich. -Wrong
The cat jumped onto the counter and stole the sandwich. -Correct

Confusing Verbs: Sit and Set

The verb sit means "to be seated" or "to rest". Sit seldom takes a direct object. The verb set means "to put (something) in a place". Set usually takes a direct object.

Examples:
I will sit in the easy chair.
The worker has sat there.

Confusing Verbs: Rise and Raise

The verb rise means "to go up" or "to get up". Rise does not take a direct object. The verb raise means "to lift (something) up" or "to cause (something) to rise". Raise usually takes a direct object.

Examples:
The winner is rising to receive his medal.
Texas rose quickly.

Confusing Verbs: Lie and Lay

The verb lie generally means "to recline", "to be in a place", or "to remain lying down". Lie does not take a direct object. The verb lay generally means "to put (something) down" or "to place (something)". Lay usually takes a direct object.

Examples:
The beam is lying near the edge.
The newspaper lay on the kitchen table.

Chapter 8: Subject and Object Forms

The Forms of Personal Pronouns

The form of a personal pronoun shows how it can be used in a sentence. Pronouns used as subjects and predicate nominatives are in the subject form. Pronouns used as direct objects and indirect objects of verbs and as objects of prepositions are in the object form. Possessive forms (my, mine, your, yours, his, her, hers, its, their, theirs, out, ours) are used to show ownership or possession.

Examples:
He and I went to the post office. (he, I-subject)
The winner of the marathon is she. (she-predicate nominative)
Mr. Garcia helped him and me with yesterday's homework. (him, me-direct object)
The clerk gave us the package. (us-indirect object)
When is Theo going to give the flowers to her? (her-object of preposition)
A mother bear is very protective of her cubs. (her-possessive pronoun)

The Subject Form: Pronoun as Subject

The subject tells whom or what the sentence is about. Use the subject form for a pronoun that is the subject of a verb.

Example:
I walked to school. (I-subject)

The Subject Form: Pronoun as Predicate Nominative

A predicate nominative completes the meaning of a linking verb and identifies or refers to the subject of the sentence. Use the subject form for a pronoun that is a predicate nominative. A pronoun used as a predicate nominative usually follows a form of the verb be (such as am, are, is, was, were, be, been, or being).

Example:
The next singer is she. (she-predicate nominative)

The Object Form: Pronoun as Direct Object

A direct object completes the meaning of an action verb and tells who or what receives the action of the verb. Use the object form for a pronoun that is the direct object of a verb.

Example:
The teacher thanked me for cleaning the board. (me-direct object)

The Object Form: Pronoun as Indirect Object

An indirect object may come between an action verb and a direct object. An indirect object tells to whom or to what or for whom or for what something is done. use the object form for a pronoun that is the indirect object of a verb.

Example:
He handed me a note. (me-indirect object)

The Object Form: Pronoun as Object of Preposition

The object of a preposition is a noun or pronoun that follows a preposition. Together, the preposition, its object, and any modifiers of that object make a prepositional phrase. Use the object form for a pronoun that is the object of a preposition.

Example:
above me

Special Pronoun Problems: Who and Whom

The pronoun who has two different forms. Who is the subject form. Whom is the object form.

Examples:
Who rang the bell?
To whom did JoJo give the gift?

Pronouns with Appositives

Sometimes a pronoun is followed directly by a noun that identifies the pronoun. Such a noun is called an appositive. To help you choose which pronoun to use before an appositive, omit the appositive and try each form of the pronoun separately.

Example:
We Boy Scouts swam laps.

Chapter 9: Comparison and Placement

One-Word Modifiers

A modifier is a word, phrase, or a clause that makes the meaning of a word or word group more specific. The two kinds of modifiers are adjectives and adverbs. Adjectives make the meanings of nouns and pronouns more specific. Adverbs make the meanings of verbs, adjectives, and other adverbs more specific.


Examples:

That one is my favorite. (that-adjective)

The painting is quite old. (quite-adverb)

Phrases and Clauses as Modifiers

Like one-word modifiers, phrases and clauses can also be used as adjectives and adverbs.


Examples:

The cat with the short tail is my favorite. (with the short tail-adjective phrase)

Before Mario went downstairs, he washed his face and hands. (before Mario went downstairs-adverb clause)

Comparison of Adjectives and Adverbs

When adjectives and adverbs are used in comparisons, they take different forms. The specific form they take depends upon how things are being compared. The different forms of comparison are called degrees of comparison. The three degrees of comparison of modifiers are the positive, the comparison, and the superlative. The positive degree is used when only one thing is being modified and no comparison is being made. The comparative degree is used when two things are being compared. The superlative degree is used when three or more things are being compared.

Examples:
The horse jumped gracefully. (gracefully-positive degree)
Which of the two horses jumped more gracefully. (more gracefully-comparative degree)
Which member of the team runs most quickly. (most quickly-superlative degree)

Regular Comparison

Most one-syllable modifiers form the comparative degree by adding -er and the superlative degree by adding -est. Two-syllable modifiers can form the comparative degree by adding -er or by using more. They can form the superlative degree by adding -est or by using most. Modifiers that have three or more syllables form the comparative degree by using more and the superlative degree by using most.

Examples:
near--nearer--nearest - one-syllable
fancy--fancier--fanciest - two-syllables
cheerful--more cheerful--most cheerful - two-syllables
interesting--more interesting--most interesting - three or more syllables

Decreasing Comparison

To show a decrease in the qualities they express, modifiers form the comparative degree by using less and the superlative degree by using least.

Example:
clean--less clean--least clean

Irregular Comparison

Some modifiers do not form their comparative and superlative degrees by using the regular methods.

Example:
good--better--best

Special Problems in Using Modifiers

The modifiers good and well have different uses. Use good to modify a noun or a pronoun. Use well to modify a verb. Use adjectives, not adverbs, after linking verbs. Avoid using double comparisons. A double comparison is the use of both -er and more (or less) or both -est and most (or least) to form a single comparison. When you make a comparison, use only one of these forms, not both.

Examples:
The book was better than the movie.
The day started well.
Did Chris seem sad to you?
That was the actor's most scariest role. -Double Comparison
That was the actor's scariest role. -Correct Comparison

Double Negatives

Avoid using double negatives. A double negative is the use of two or more negative words to express one negative idea.

Example:
Sheila did not tell no one her idea. -Wrong
Sheila did not tell anyone about her idea. -Correct

Placement of Modifiers

Place modifying words, phrases, and clauses as close as possible to the words they modify. A modifier that seems to modify the wrong word in a sentence is called a misplaced modifier. The placement of an adjective or adverb may affect the meaning of a sentence. Avoid placing an adjective or adverb so that it appears to modify a word hat you didn't mean it to modify. A prepositional phrase includes a preposition, the object of the preposition, and any modifiers of that object. A prepositional phrase used as an adjective generally should be placed directly after the word it modifies. A prepositional phrase used as an adverb phrase should be placed near the word it modifies. An adjective clause modifies a noun or a pronoun. Most adjective clauses begin with a relative pronoun---that, which, who, whom, or whom. Like adjective phrases, adjective clauses should generally be placed directly after the words they modify.

Examples:
Today Randall said he would help me build a birdhouse. -Wrong
Randall said he would help me build a birdhouse today. -Correct