Cell Organelles

By: Mercer Wright, Honors Biology, Period 2

Plasma Or Cell Membrane

Structure: A flexible container made of smaller molecules.

Function: Contains the cell and keeps its other organelles inside.

Present In: Both animals and plants.

Cell Wall

Structure: A protected framework around the plant cell made of cellulose.

Function: Protects plant cell and helps keep its shape.

Present In: Plants only.

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Cytoplasm

Structure: The fluid that fills the cell.

Function: Suspends organelles and dissolves enzymes.

Present In: Both.

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Nucleus

Structure: A membrane that surrounds the nucleus' contents and has holes in it to let some molecules pass in and out.

Function: Brain of the cell; controls eating, movement, and reproduction.

Present In: Both.

Nuclear Membrane

Structure: Envelope that surrounds the nucleus's contents and has pores in it to let some molecules pass in and out.

Function: Contains the contents of the nucleus while letting proteins and RNA pass in and out.

Present In: Both.

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Nucleolus

Structure: Looks like a nucleus in the nucleus or a black spot in the chromatin of the nucleus.

Function: Contains RNA and proteins, and doesn't contain much DNA.

Present In: Both.

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Chromatin

Structure: Fluid around the nucleolus in the nucleus.

Function: Contains most of the nucleic acids in the nucleus.

Present In: Both.

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Centrioles

Structure: Small set of microtubules with threads in them that are visible when its helping the cell to divide.

Function: Helps cell to divide.

Present In: Animals only.

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Ribosomes

Structure: Two subunits (60-s and 40-s) that connect or touch.

Function: Protein builders/synthesizers.

Present In: Both.

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Golgi Apparatus

Structure: Series of membranes shaped like a stack of pancakes.

Function: Packaging organelle, makes simple molecules more complex and stores them for later use.

Present In: Both.

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Endoplasmic Reticulum

Structure: Membranes that are smooth and tube-like or rough and sheet like and also bumpy.

Function: A manufacturing and packing system.

Present In: Both.

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Mitochondria

Structure: Made of two membranes to cover it and increase surface area, is bean shaped.

Function: "Powerhouse" of the cell, takes in nutrients to break them down into energy.

Present In: Both.

Chloroplast

Structure: 2 membranes that surround the stroma and grana and has chlorophyll on its surface.

Function: Food producers of cell.

Present In: Plants only.

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Lysosomes

Structure: A vesicle in the cell that carries the enzymes.

Function: Holds enzymes created by the cell and can digest stuff.

Present In: Animals only.

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Peroxisomes

Structure: A single membrane that also holds enzymes.

Function: Holds oxygen-needing enzymes and digests things as well.

Present In: Animals only.

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Vacuole

Structure: Big bubble with stored stuff in it from the cell.

Function: Stores food and nutrients, sometimes even waste.

Present In: Both.

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Cytoskeleton

Structure: Network of fibers made of proteins.

Function: Gives the cell its shape.

Present In: Both.

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