The Pharaoh and it's helpers
In ancient Egypt, the pharaoh was the ruler of Egypt. If you were to have a home in Egypt you did not own it Pharaoh did, Pharaoh owned everything. Each Pharaoh had an army, police force, and a large number of ministers and government officials to help him rule Egypt. The most important of the helpers was the Vizier it was the Pharaoh's go-to man.
The ancient Egyptians did have a court system. There was a higher court and a lower court. The lower court was made up of elders in each town. The supreme high court judge was the Pharaoh, who assigned the vizier to his job, to hear and act like judge. When a dispute was settled in lower court, both sides were heard, and a common sense decision based on facts. If you didn't like the decision made by the lower court, then you would go see the vizier and present your case again. It wasn't smart to see the vizier unless your case was serious and you had evidence. You could be in more trouble than before if you want your case to be heard in higher court.