Mouth Cancer

By: Hannah Pike and Sam Beane

What is Mouth Cancer?


  • Mouth cells-where the cancer begins

  • Organs of the body are made up of tissue

  • Cells usually form new cells by growing and dividing

  • When something bad happens to the cell (dies, damaged, sick) new cells replace them

  • Things can go wrong: cells don’t die therefore they accumulate, this results in extra tissue growth known as tumors

  • Oral tumors- two types: benign (not major quiet) Malignant (active and deadly)

  • Spreading is possible- if cells move apart from main tumor

  • Spread to: blood vessels, and lymph vessels

  • Lymph nodes are first place the cells appear (neck)

  • New tumors are able to form if the cells latch onto other tissues (could damage these tissues)

  • Metastasis= spreading of cancer cells

Tumors-

"Benign tumors are not as harmful as malignant tumors:

• Benign tumors:

—are rarely a threat to life

—can be removed and usually don’t grow back

—don’t invade the tissues around them

—don’t spread to other parts of the body

• Malignant tumors:

—may be a threat to life

—can grow back after they are removed

—can invade and damage nearby tissues and organs

—can spread to other parts of the body"

(National Cancer Institute)

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Figure 1- Description and pictures of people who have mouth cancer.

What are the Symptoms of Mouth Cancer? How does it Impact the People it Affects?

  • Mouth, tongue, lips are areas affected

  • Appears as: mouth ulcer (painless), red or white patches in mouth


"Symptoms of oral cancer may include:

• Patches inside your mouth or on your lips:

—White patches (leukoplakia) are the most common. White patches sometimes become malignant.

—Mixed red and white patches (erythroleukoplakia) are more likely than white patches to become malignant.

—Red patches (erythroplakia) are brightly colored, smooth areas that often become malignant.

• A sore on your lip or in your mouth that doesn’t heal

• Bleeding in your mouth

• Loose teeth

• Difficulty or pain when swallowing

• Difficulty wearing dentures

• A lump in your neck

• An earache that doesn’t go away

• Numbness of lower lip and chin"

(National Cancer Institute)

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Figure 2- A picture of a red spot which was identified as mouth cancer.

How Prevalent is this Cancer?

  • 6th most common cancer

  • 30,000 new cases each year

  • Males are twice as likely to get oral cancer

  • Greatest in men 40+

  • Early detection is very curable

  • Early detection rates= 90% to 100% cure rates

  • Anyone can be affected

  • Mouth cancer now more apparent in younger people and in women

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Figure 3- Info-graphic on mouth/oral cancer, and conveys how easy it can be to get it.

How is it Diagnosed?

When your doctor or dentist examines your mouth they may find a sore, an ulcer, or bleeding. These can be discovered during a routine check up and it may indicate oral cancer. if you have a sore in your mouth or a lump in your neck that doesn't go away after a month then contact your doctor. (Ashutosh Kacker)
Big image
"Oral Exam" (Drranzino-1st picture citation)

What are the possible causes of this cancer?

Things that can increase the risk of mouth cancer are:


  • Tobacco
  • Alcohol
  • Excessive sun exposure
  • The sexually transmitted disease human papillomavirus (Mayo Clinic)
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"HPV" (Pittsburgh Post-Gazette. 2nd picture citation)

What Happens at the cellular and molecular level?

Mouth cancer happens when the cells in or around your mouth mutate their DNA. Cancer cells then grow and healthy cells die. These cancer cells can then form a tumor. They then can spread to other parts of the mouth and head. The most common starting place for the cancers to start is in the cells that line your lips.

(Mayo Clinic)

Also (Honors)

  • all major forms of tobacco can cause oral cancer

  • cellular alterations such as a decrease in cellular diameter and an increase in nuclear diameter can happen to tobacco users

  • an average of 5-16.5% increase in nuclear area of cells is present in users versus nonusers

  • cells stay in cell cycles longer, which causes delayed cell divisions

  • these are indicators of the enlargement of the oral mucus membranes which can lead to malignant tumors

these are mainly caused by the byproducts of tobacco, nitrosamine and nitrosonornicotine.

(Khot, Komal)

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"cells" ( Ravi Mandalia, techienews- 3rd picture citation)

What are the treatments? What are the cures?

Surgery, Radiation Therapy, Chemotherapy, Targeted drug therapy, and alternative medicine can be used as treatment for oral cancer and the side effects of oral cancer. Although, how well any of these works depends on the stage of cancer you are at and what your doctor recommends.

(Mayo Clinic)

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"Chemotherapy" (The Breast Care Site-last picture citation)

Work Cited- Sam Beane

"Oral Cancer." Medline Plus. N.p., 2 Dec. 2015. Web. 16 Dec. 2015. <https://www.nlm.nih.gov/

medlineplus/ency/article/001035.htm>.


"Mouth Cancer." Mayo Clinic. N.p., 2015. Web. 16 Dec. 2015. <http://www.mayoclinic.org/

diseases-conditions/mouth-cancer/symptoms-causes/dxc-20157232>.



"Treatment." Mayo Clinic. N.p., 2015. Web. 16 Dec. 2015. <http://www.mayoclinic.org/

diseases-conditions/mouth-cancer/diagnosis-treatment/treatment/txc-20157256>.


Khot, Komal, et al. "A cytomorphometric analysis of oral mucosal changes in tobacco users." Journal of Natural Science, Biology and Medicine 6.3 (2015): 22. Science in Context. Web. 20 Dec. 2015.

Pictures:

"Oral Exam." Drranzino. drranzino, 2015. Web. 22 Dec. 2015. <http://www.drranzino.com/ SUPPORTING_PAGES/?S=D>.


"HPV." Get your kids vaccinated against HPV. Pittsburgh Post-Gazette, n.d. Web. 22 Dec. 2015. <http://www.post-gazette.com/opinion/2015/04/08/ Get-your-kids-vaccinated-against-HPV-Vaccinations-can-prevent-cervical-and-other-terrible-cancers/ stories/201504080012>.


"Cells." Researchers take the fight against cancer to molecular level. TechieNews, 25 June 2015. Web. 22 Dec. 2015. <http://www.techienews.co.uk/9734974/ researchers-take-the-fight-against-cancer-at-molecular-level/>.


"Chemotherapy." WHAT TO EXPECT FROM CHEMOTHERAPY. Amoena USA Corporation, 2 Aug. 2011. Web. 22 Dec. 2015. <http://www.thebreastcaresite.com/chemotherapy/expect-chemotherapy/>.


Annotation:


"Mouth Cancer." Mayo Clinic. N.p., 2015. Web. 16 Dec. 2015. <http://www.mayoclinic.org/

diseases-conditions/mouth-cancer/symptoms-causes/dxc-20157232>.


The website MayoClinic.org is one that I used a few times for this project and contained some solid information. The author of this source was the Mayo Clinic staff and did not specify certain people. Although, the people who work at the Mayo Clinic Hospitals and centers are professionals in medicine. The reputation of Mayo Clinic is a strong one when it comes to giving information about medical illnesses.Mayo Clinic is the first and largest nonprofit medical group practice in the world(originating in 1889). They have employed almost 51,000 health personals. they also spend over $500 Million on research a year. Because of these factors, including the fact that they are non-profit, this article has little to no bias. The article is current because the site is updated when new research is added and new discoveries are made. looking at my other sources, there is no conflict in information. This article had great information that was important for my research and project.

Works Cited- Hannah Pike

Belmore Dental Studio. "What Is Mouth Cancer?" Dental Blog Belmore Dental Studio and Implant Clinic. Belmore, 3 Nov. 2015. Web. 22 Dec. 2015. <http://www.belmoredental.co.uk/blog/what-is-mouth-cancer/>. (Figure 1)


1-800 Dentistry. "Oral Cancer." - Symptoms. N.p., n.d. Web. 22 Dec. 2015. <http://www.1800dentist.com/oral-cancer/>. (Figure 2)


Himbele, Marissa. "The Oral Cancer Facts You Need to Know." Long Island Dentist. Meadow Brook Dental, 01 Apr. 2015. Web. 22 Dec. 2015. <http://www.meadowbrookdentalcare.com/the-oral-cancer-facts-you-need-to-know/>. (Figure 3)


British Dental Health Foundation. "What Is Mouth Cancer - Mouth Cancer Action Month." Mouth Cancer Action. Denplan, 14 Mar. 2014. Web. 21 Dec. 2015. <http://www.mouthcancer.org/what-is-mouth-cancer/>.


National Cancer Institute. "Oral Cancer." The British Medical Journal 1.5028 (1957): 1169-170. Cancer.gov. National Cancer Institute, Sept. 2009. Web. 22 Dec. 2015. <http://www.cancer.gov/publications/patient-education/wyntk-oral.pdf>.


NIH: National Cancer Institute. "Oral Cancer: MedlinePlus." U.S National Library of Medicine. U.S. National Library of Medicine, 26 June 2014. Web. 21 Dec. 2015. <https://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/oralcancer.html#cat79>.


SEER Cancer Statistics Review. "What You Need To Know About™ Oral Cancer." National Cancer Institute. National Institutes of Health, n.d. Web. 21 Dec. 2015. <http://www.cancer.gov/publications/patient-education/wyntk-oral-cancer>


National Cancer Institute. "Oral Cancer." The British Medical Journal 1.5028 (1957): 1169-170. Cancer.gov. National Cancer Institute, Sept. 2009. Web. 22 Dec. 2015. <http://www.cancer.gov/publications/patient-education/wyntk-oral.pdf>. (Main Source)


The National Cancer Institute was the database I used most to conduct my notes. The author of this PDF is the professionals at the U.S. Department Of Health And Human Services National Institutes of Health. They work for the U.S, and are able to access the most advanced technology to conduct their research. The National Cancer Institute (NCI) has credible information and has experts conducting the research, research analysts, and editors who review all of the information. In addition the NCI has provided patients and professionals with the Physician Data Query, which is their database where the most updated research and information is held. This database is updated consistently and it’s purpose is to inform the reader with pure facts and research. There wasn’t any bias in this source due to its pure factual content. Comparing to other sources, this information was the same in multiple articles, which confirms this source is very reliable, and was/is a valuable asset to our research