The Mongols

Genghis Khan

  • Born Temujin in the 1160s
  • Unified the Mongol Clans
  • 1206 - Elected Strong Ruler (aka. Genghis Khan)
  • Empire grew to cover the Eurasian landmass, largest empire in history

Sons of Genghis Khan

Jochi Khan was his eldest son, but his parentage was questioned throughout his life. He assisted his father in battle until the two got into a big fight. He died before his father.

Chagatai Khan, the second son, ruled Kashgaria for 14 years.

Ogedei was the third and favorite son of Genghis. He later became his father's successor. Ogedei set up places of worship for many religions in the capitol and got the empire to it's farthest extent west.

Tolui, the last son, was too young to help in battle during his father's rise, so he helped govern the homeland.


After Genghis Khan's death, a power struggle erupted briefly between his sons. What ultimately contributed to the downfall of the empire, however, was the Black Plague. The Plague originated in China and around Mongolia, and it quickly made its way through all four khanates.

The Golden Age

  1. Poetry - During the Chinese Tang Dynasty, over 48,000 poems were written, often detailing themes of nature and friendship. Li Bo and Du Fu are some of the most famous poets.
  2. Ceramics and Painting - Landscape paintings peaked during the Song and Mongol dynasties. They were heavily influenced by Daoist views. The Chinese worked with porcelain in the Tang Dynasty.

Life in the mongol army

In the Mongol army, you were always moving. In a procession called a tumen, 75,000 oxen, 100,000 sheep, 10,000 goats, and 10,000 men traveled at about five miles per day. Everything needed for food and shelter was carried in the tumen.

Men were expected to be fighters while women cooked and did domestic jobs.