Language Arts 6th Grade

What I Learned This Year! By Isabel Heileman

Chapter 1: The Sentence, Subject and Predicate, Kinds of Sentences

Sentence or Sentence Fragment?

A sentence is a word group that contains a subject and a verb and that expresses a complete thought.


EXAMPLES: Octavio Paz won a Nobel Prize in literature.

[ The subject is Octavio Paz, and the verb is won.]

Subject and Predicate

The subject tells whom the sentence is about.


EXAMPLES: My best friend sits next to me in science class.

[Who sits? My best friend sits.]


The predicate of a sentence tells something about the subject.


EXAMPLES: Lois Lenski wrote Strawberry Girl.

KInds of Sentences

A declarative sentence makes a statement and ends with a period.


EXAMPLES: Our media center has several computers.


An imperative sentence gives a command or makes a request. Most imperative sentences end with a period. A strong command ends with an exclamation point.


EXAMPLES: Please pass the potatoes. [ request]

Sit down. [command]

Stop shouting! [ strong command]


An interrogative sentence asks a question and ends with a question mark.


EXAMPLE: Did Apollo 13 spacecraft reach the moon?

How old are you?


An exclamatory sentence shows excitement or expresses strong feeling and ends with an exclamation point.


EXAMPLE: What a difficult assignment that was!

I got her autograph!

Chapter 2: Noun, Pronoun, Adjective.

The Noun

A noun is a word or word group that is used to name a person, place , thing, or idea.


EXAMPLE: Clara Barton was the founder of the American Red Cross.

Clara Barton, founder, American Red Cross.

The Pronoun

A pronoun is a word that is used in place of one or more nouns or pronouns.


EXAMPLE:When Cindy Davis came to the bus stop,she was wearing a cast.


The trees and bushes are dry; they should be watered.


This stable is large. It has stalls for thirty horses.

The Adjective

An adjective is a word that is used to modify a noun or a pronoun.


EXAMPLE:This dog is gentle. [The predicate adjective gentle modifies dog.]


The sea, blue and sparkling, stretched out before us invitingly.[The adjectives blue and sparkling modify the noun sea.]

Chapter 3: Verb,Adverb, Preposition, Conjunction,Interjection.

The Verb

A verb is word that expresses action or a state of being.


EXAMPLES: We went to Boston last April.


Is a firefly a kind of beetle?

The Adverb

An adverb is a word that modifies a verb, an adjective, or another adverb.


EXAMPLE: Reporters quickly gather the news.[The adverb quickly modifies the verb gather.]


The route is too long. [the adverb too modifies the adjective long.]


Our newspaper carrier delivers the paper very early. [ The adverb very modifies another adverb, early. The adverb early modifies the verb delivers.]

The Preposition

A preposition is a word that shows the relationship between a noun or a pronoun and another word in the sentence.

EXAMPLE: Your math book is underneath your coat, Allen.[ The preposition underneath shows the relationship of coat to book.]

The one behind us honked his horn.[The preposition behind shows the relationship of us to one.]

The Interjection

An interjection is a word that expresses emotion.

EXAMPLE: Aha! I knew you were hiding there.

Well,
what do you think?

Is that a wasp? Ouch!


Chapter 4: Prepositional Phrases, Independent and Subordinate Clauses, Sentence Structure

The Phrase

A phrase is a group of related words that is used as a single part of speech and that does not contain both a verb and its subject.

EXAMPLES: could have been looking[ no subject]

in the backyard[ no subject or verb]

Prepositional Phrase

A prepositional phrase includes a preposition, the object of the preposition, and any modifiers of that object.

EXAMPLE: The man from Singapore was giving a speech. [ The preposition from shows the relationship between the object Singapore and the noun man.]

The tree in front of the window blocks our view.[ The compound preposition in front of shows the relationship between the object window and the noun tree. The modifies window.]

Please hand me the book on the long, green table. [ The preposition on shows the relationship between the object table and the noun book. The adjectives the, long, and green modify table.

Adjective Phrases

A prepositional phrase that modifies a noun or pronoun is called an adjective phrase.

EXAMPLE: Diego Rivera was a famous painter from Mexico.
from Mexico - painter

Adverb Phrases

A prepositional phrase that is used to modify a verb, an adjective, or an adverb is called and adverb phrase.

EXAMPLE: Adverb We walk there every Saturday.
Adverb Phrase We walk along the lake every Saturday.

Independent Clause

An independent clause expresses a complete thought and can stand by itself as a sentence.


EXAMPLE:

Subject Verb

Gertie practices soccer every day.

Subordinate Clauses

A subordinate clause does not express a complete thought and cannot stand by itself as a complete sentence.


EXAMPLE:

Subject Verb

Which we found on the sidewalk.

Adjective Clause

An adjective clause is a subordinate clause that modifies a noun or pronoun


EXAMPLE:
ADJECTIVE: a white cat

ADJECTIVE PHRASE: A cat with white fur [With white fur does not have a subject and verb.]

ADJECTIVE CLAUSE: a cat that has white fur [That has white fur has a subject, that, and a verb, has.]

Adverb Clauses

An adverb clauses is a subordinate clause that modifies a verb, and adjective, or an adverb.


EXAMPLE:

ADVERB: Shyly, the toddler hid behind her mother.

ADVERB PHRASE:With a shy smile, the toddler hid behind her mother.[With a shy smile does not have a subject and verb.]

ADVERB CLAUSE: Since the toddler was shy, she hid behind her mother.[ Since the toddler was shy has a subject, toddler, and a verb, was.]

Simple Sentences

A simple sentence has one independent clause and no subordinate clauses.

EXAMPLE: My mother belongs to the Friends of the library.[single subject and single verb]

Argentina and Chile are in South America[compound subject]

Compound Sentences

A compound sentence consists of two or more independent clauses, usually joined by a comma and connecting word.

EXAMPLE:I forgot my lunch, but Dad ran to the bus with it.
She likes sweets, yet she seldom buys them.

Complex Sentences

A complex sentence contains one independent clause and at least on subordinate clause.

EXAMPLE:Before Chen planted his garden, he made a sketch of the layout.
independent clause: he made a sketch of the layout
subordinate clause: Before Chen planted his garden

Compound-Complex Sentences

A sentence with two or more independent clauses and at least one subordinate clause is a compound- complex sentence.

EXAMPLE: I picked up the branches that had fallen during the storm, and Rosa mowed the grass.
independent clause: I picked up the branches
independent clause: Rosa mowed the grass
subordinate clause: that had fallen during the storm

Chapter 5: Complements, Direct and Indirect Objects, Subject Complements

Recognizing Complements

A complement is a word or word group that completes the meaning of a verb.


INCOMPLETE: My aunt found[what?]

COMPLETE: My aunt found a wallet.[The noun wallet completes the meaning of the verb found.]

Direct Objects

A direct object is a noun, pronoun, or word group that tells who or what receives the action of the verb.


EXAMPLE: Jan called somebody for the assignment.[ Jan called whom? Called somebody. The pronoun somebody receives the action of the verb called.]

Indirect Objects

An indirect object is a noun, pronoun, or word group that usually comes between the verb and the direct object. An indirect object tells to whom or to what or for whom or for what the action of the verb is done
EXAMPLE: I gave that problem some thought.[ The noun problem is the indirect object of the verb gave and answers the question " To what did I give some thought?"]

Subject Complements

A subject complement is a word or word group that is in the predicate and that identifies or describes the subject.
EXAMPLES:The airport appears very busy.[The subject complement busy describes the subject airport. The linking verb appears connects airport and busy.]

Predicate Nominatives

A predicate nominative is a word or word group that is in the predicate and that identifies the subject or refers to it.
EXAMPLES: Seaweed is algae, as I remember.[ The noun algae is a predicate nominative following the linking verb is. Algae identifies the subject Seaweed.

Predicate Adjectives

A predicate adjective is an adjective that is in the predicate and that describes the subject.
EXAMPLES:The blanket is soft and fuzzy.[ Both soft and fuzzy describe the subject blanket.]

Chapter 6: Agreement, Subject and Verb, Pronoun and Antecedent.

Number

Number is the form a word takes to show whether the word in singular or plural.

EXAMPLE: activities- plural peach- singular

Agreement of Subject and Verb

A verb should agree in number with its subject. A subject and verb agree when they have the same number.

EXAMPLES: The ocean roars in the distance.[ The singular verb roars agrees with the singular subject ocean.]

Problems in Agreement, Phrases Between Subject and Verb

The number of a subject is not changed by a phrase following the subject.

EXAMPLES: These shades of blue are my favorite colors.
However, if the subject is the indefinite pronoun all,any, more,most, none, or some, its number may be determined by the object of the prepositional phrase that follows it.

EXAMPLES: Some of the oranges are gone.[Some refers to the plural noun oranges.]
Some of the fruit is gone.[Some refers to the singular noun fruit.]

Indefinite Pronouns

Personal pronouns refer to specific people,places,things,or ideas.A pronoun that does not refer to a definite person,place,thing,or idea is called an indefinite pronoun. The following indefinite pronouns are singular: anybody, anyone, anything, each, either, everybody, everyone, everything,neither,nobody,no one,nothing,one,somebody, someone, and something.
EXAMPLES:One of the stars is from my home town.

Compound Subjects

A compound subject is made up of two or more subjects that are connected by the conjunction and,or, or nor. These connected subjects share the same verb.Subjects joined by and generally take a plural verb.
EXAMPLES: Red and blue are the school's colors.
Singular subjects that are joined by or or nor take a singular verb.
EXAMPLE:A new marble statue or a fountain has been planned for the park.
Plural subjects joined by or or nor take a plural verb.
EXAMPLE:Either potatoes or beans are served with the baked chicken.
When a singular subject and a plural subject are joined by or or nor, the verb agrees with the subject nearer the verb.
EXAMPLE: Either the engineers or their boss has made this mistake.[The singular helping verb has agrees with the nearer subject, boss.]

Subject After the Verb

When the subject follows the verb, find the subject and make sure that the verb agrees with it.The subject usually follows the verb in questions and in sentences that begin with there and here.
EXAMPLE:Are the birds in the nest? Is the nest on a high branch?

The Contractions Don't and Doesn't

The word don't is the contraction of do not. Use don't with all plural subjects and with the pronouns I and you.
EXAMPLE: I don't have my keys. Dogs don't meow.
The word doesn't is the contraction of does not. Use doesn't with all singular subject except the pronouns I and you.
EXAMPLE: He doesn't know you. Don doesn't like thunder.

Agreement of Pronoun and Antecedent

A pronoun usually refers to a noun or another pronoun called its antecedent. When you use a pronoun, make sure that it agrees with its antecedent.
EXAMPLE: Rosa said she lost her glasses.
A pronoun should agree with its antecedent in number.
EXAMPLE:Please put the lawn mower away after you have finished using it.
Use a singular pronoun to refer to the indefinite pronouns anybody, anyone, anything, each, either, everybody, everyone, everything, neither, nobody, no one, nothing, one, somebody, someone, and something.
EXAMPLE:Has one of the hamsters hurt its leg.
Use a plural pronoun to refer to the indefinite pronouns both, few, many, and several.
EXAMPLE:Both of the birds had hidden their nests well.
The indefinite pronouns all, any, more, most, none, and, some may be singular or plural, depending on their meaning in a sentence.
EXAMPLE:None of the cereal has lost its crunch.[None is singular because it refers to the singular noun cereal.]
Use a singular pronoun to refer to two or more singular antecedents joined by or or nor.
EXAMPLE:Either Miguel or Randell has his paintings on display.
Use a plural pronoun to refer to two or more antecedents joined by and.
EXAMPLE: When Tyrell and Davis get home, their will be surprised.

Chapter 7: Using Verbs Correctly, Principal Parts,Regular and Irregular Verbs, Tense

Principal Parts of Verbs

The four basic forms of a verb are called the principal parts of the verb.The four principal parts of a verb are the base form, the present participle, the past, and the past participle.
As you can see from their names,the principal parts of a verb are used to express time.
EXAMPLE:
PRESENT TIME: She wears a blue uniform.
PAST TIME: Yesterday, we wore sweaters.
FUTURE TIME: Jessica will wear her new dress at the party.

Regular Verbs

A regular verb forms its past and past participle by adding -d or -ed to the base form.
EXAMPLE:
cause causing caused
drop dropping dropped

Irregular Verbs

An irregular verb forms its past and past participle in some other way than by adding -d or -ed to the base form.An irregular verb forms its past and past participle in one of the following ways:changing vowels,changing consonants, changing vowels and consonants, and making no change.
EXAMPLE: I have begun to learn karate.

Tense

The tense of a verb indicates the time of the action or the state of being that is expressed by the verb.The six tenses are present, past, future, present perfect,past perfect, and future perfect. These tenses are formed from the principal parts of a verbs. Each of these six tenses has its own uses. The following time line shows the relationships between tenses.
EXAMPLE:
present: we wear
past: we wore
future: we will(shall) wear
present perfect: we have worn
past perfect:we had worn
future perfect: we will(shall) have worn

Consistency of Tense

Do not change needlessly from one tense to another.To write about events that take place at about the same time, use verbs in the same tense. To write about events that occur at different times, use verbs in different tenses.
EXAMPLE:
INCONSISTENT: The cat jumped onto the counter and steals the sandwich.[The events happen at about the same time, but jumped is in the past tense, and steals it in the present tense.]
CONSISTENT: The cat jumped onto the counter and stole the sandwich.[Both verbs are in the past tense.]
CONSISTENT: The cat jumps onto the counter and steals the sandwich.[ Both verbs are in the present tense.]

Six Confusing Verbs: Sit and Set

The verb sit means '' to be seated'' or'' to rest.'' Sit seldom takes a direct object. The verb set means '' to put (something) in a place.'' Set usually takes a direct object. Notice that set has the same form for the base form,past,and past participle.
EXAMPLE:I will sit in the easy chair.[no direct object]
I will set the cushion in the easy chair.[ I will set what? Cushion is the direct object.]

Rise and Raise

The verb rise means''to go up'' or'' to get up.''Rise does not take a direct object. The verb raise means ''to lift(something) up'' or''to cause(something) to rise.'' Raise usually takes a direct object.
EXAMPLE: The winner is rising to receive his medal.[no direct object]
The winner is raising her arms in triumph.[The winner is raising what? Arms is the direct object.]

Lie and Lay

The verb lie generally means''to recline,'' ''to be in a place,'' or '' to remain lying down.'' Lie does not take a direct object. The verb lay generally means''to put (something) down'' or ''to place (something).'' Lay usually takes a direct object.
EXAMPLE: The beam is lying near the edge.[no direct object]
The workers are laying the beams near the edge.[ The workers are laying what? Beams is the direct object.]

Chapter 7:Using Pronouns Correctly, Subject and Object Forms

The Forms of Personal Pronouns

The form of a personal pronoun shows how it can be used in a sentence. Pronouns used as subjects and predicate nominatives are in the subject form.
EXAMPLE: He and I went to the post office.[subject]
The winner of the marathon is she.[predicate nominative]

The Subject Form, Pronoun as Subject

The subject tells whom or what the sentence is about.Use the subject form for a pronoun that is the subject of a verb.
EXAMPLE:I walked to school.[I is the subject of the verb walked.]
Did they get to the theater on time?[They is the subject of the verb Did get.]

Pronoun as Predicate Nominative

A predicate nominative completes the meaning of a linking verb and identifies or refers to the subject of the sentence.Use the subject form for a pronoun that is a predicate nominative.
EXAMPLE:The next singer is she.[She completes the meaning pf the linking verb is and identifies the subject singer.]

The Object Form: Pronoun as Direct Object

A direct object completes the meaning of an action verb and tells who or what receives the action of the verb.Use the object form for a pronoun that is the direct object of a verb.
EXAMPLE: The teacher thanked me for cleaning the chalkboard.[Teacher is the subject of the verb thanked.The teacher thanked whom? The direct object is me.]

The Object Form: Pronoun as Indirect Object

An indirect object may come between an action verb and a direct object. An indirect object tells to whom or to what or for whom or for what something is done.Use the object form fort a pronoun that is the indirect object of a verb.
EXAMPLE: Scott handed me a note.[Scott handed what? Note is the direct object. To whom did he hand a note? The indirect object is me.]

Pronoun as Object of a Preposition

The object of a preposition is a noun or a pronoun that follows a preposition. Together, the preposition, its object, and any modifiers of that object make a prepositional phrase.Use the object form for a pronoun that is the object of a prepositional phrase.

EXAMPLE:The lemonade stand was built by Chuck and me.

Special Pronoun Problems, Who and Whom

The pronoun who has two different forms.Who is the subject form. Whom is the object form.
EXAMPLES:Who owns the sailboat over there?
To whom did you throw the ball?

Pron ouns with Appositives

Sometimes a pronoun is followed directly by a noun that identifies the pronoun. Such a noun is called an appositive.To help you choose which pronoun to use before an appositive, omit the appositive and try each form of the pronoun separately.

Example: ( We,Us) Girl Scouts swan laps.[Girl Scouts is the appositive identifying the pronoun. We swam laps or Us swam laps?]
CORRECT: We Girl Scouts swam laps.

Chapter 9:Using Modifiers Correctly, Comparison and Placement

What Is a Modifier

A modifier is a word,a phrase, or a clause that makes the meaning of a word or word group more specific. The two kinds of modifiers are adjectives and adverbs.

One-Word Modifiers,Adjectives

Adjectives make the meanings of nouns and pronouns more specific.
EXAMPLES:
That one is my favorite. [ The adjective That tells which one.]
Does Stephen know the secret combination?[The adjective secret tells what kind of combination.]

One-Word Modifiers, Adverb

Adverbs make the meanings of verbs, adjectives, and other adverbs more specific.
EXAMPLES:The car backfired loudly.[The adverb loudly makes the meaning of the verb back fired more specific.]

Phrases Used as Modifiers

Like one-word modifiers, phrases can also be used as adjectives and adverbs.

EXAMPLES: The cat with the short tail is my favorite .[The prepositional phrase with the short tail acts as an adjective that modifies the noun cat.]

Clauses Used as Modifiers

Like words and phrases , clauses can also be used as modifiers.
EXAMPLES: Spaghetti is the food that I like best.[The adjective clause that I like best modifies the noun food.]

Comparison of Adjectives and Adverbs

When adjectives and adverbs are used in comparisons,they take different forms. The specific form they take depends upon how many things are being compared.The different forms of comparison are called degrees of comparison.The three degrees of comparison of modifiers are the positive, the comparative, and the superlative.
The positive degree is used when only one thing is being modified and no comparison is being made
EXAMPLE: Felita is a good book.
The comparative degree is used when two things are being compared.
EXAMPLES:in my opinion,Nilda is a better book than Felita.
The superlative degree is used when three or more things are being compared.
EXAMPLES:Nilda is one of the best books I've read.

Regular Comparison

More one syllable modifiers form the comparative degree by adding -er and the subjective degree by adding-est.Two-syllable modifiers can form the comparative degree by adding -er or by using more. They can form the superlative degree by `adding -est or by using most.


EXAMPLE:

Happy

happier,happiest,;less happy,least happy

Calm

calmer,calmest; less calm, least calm

Irregular Comparison

Some modifiers do not form their comparative and superlative degrees by using the regular methods.You do not need to add -erl -est, more/most, or less/least to an irregular comparison. For example, worse, all by itself, is the comparative form of bad. Worser and more worse are non-standard forms.

EXAMPLES:

Word:many

Let's see which of the two teams can wash___cars.

Answer: more

Special Problems in Using Modifiers

The modifiers good and well have different uses.Use good to modify a noun or a pronoun.
EXAMPLES:The farmers had a good crop this year.[The adjective good modifies the noun crop.]
The book was better than the movie.[The adjective better modifies the noun book.]

Avoid using Double Comparison

A double comparison is the use of both -er and more (or less) or both -est and most(or least) to form a single comparison.When you make a comparison, use only one of these forms,not both.
EXAMPLES:
NONSTANDARD:That was the actor's most scariest role.
STANDARD:That was the actor's scariest role.

Double Negatives

Negative words are a common part of everyday speaking and writing.These words include the modifiers no,not,never,and hardly.Notice how negative words change the meaning of the following sentences.
EXAMPLES:
POSITIVE: We can count in Spanish.
NEGATIVE: We cannot count in Spanish.

Placement of Modifiers

Place modifying words,phrases,and clauses as close as possible to the words they modifying.Notice how the meaning of the following sentences changes when the position of the phrase from Brazil changes.
EXAMPLES: The singer from Brazil gave a radio interview for her fans.[The phrase modifies singer.]
The singer gave a radio interview for her fans from Brazil.[The phrase modifies fans.]

Adjectives and Adverbs

The placement of an adjective or adverb may affect the meaning of a sentence.Avoid placing an adjective or adverb so that it appears to modify a word that you didn't mean it to modify.
EXAMPLE:Jackie borrowed some camping equipment only for the weekend.[She borrowed the equipment for the weekend, not for any other time.]

Prepositional Phrases

A prepositional phrase includes a preposition, the object of the preposition, and any modifiers of that object. A prepositional phrase used as an adjective generally should be placed directly after the word it modifies.

EXAMPLE:
MISPLACED: Ms. Ruiz got a sweater for her dog with a snowflake pattern.
CLEAR: Ms.Ruiz got a sweater with a snowflake pattern for her dog.

Adjective Clauses

An adjective clause modifies a noun or a pronoun.Most adjective clauses begin with a relative pronoun-that,which,who,whom,or whose.

EXAMPLE:
MISPLACED: Mrs.Chu gives the sculptures to her friends that she carves.[Does Mrs. Chu carve her friends?]
CLEAR: Mrs.Chu gives the sculptures that she carves to her friends.