Language Arts 6th Grade
What I Learned This Year! By Isabel Heileman
Chapter 1: The Sentence, Subject and Predicate, Kinds of Sentences
KInds of Sentences
EXAMPLES: Our media center has several computers.
An imperative sentence gives a command or makes a request. Most imperative sentences end with a period. A strong command ends with an exclamation point.
EXAMPLES: Please pass the potatoes. [ request]
Sit down. [command]
Stop shouting! [ strong command]
An interrogative sentence asks a question and ends with a question mark.
EXAMPLE: Did Apollo 13 spacecraft reach the moon?
How old are you?
An exclamatory sentence shows excitement or expresses strong feeling and ends with an exclamation point.
EXAMPLE: What a difficult assignment that was!
I got her autograph!
Chapter 2: Noun, Pronoun, Adjective.
Chapter 3: Verb,Adverb, Preposition, Conjunction,Interjection.
EXAMPLE: Reporters quickly gather the news.[The adverb quickly modifies the verb gather.]
The route is too long. [the adverb too modifies the adjective long.]
Our newspaper carrier delivers the paper very early. [ The adverb very modifies another adverb, early. The adverb early modifies the verb delivers.]
EXAMPLE: Your math book is underneath your coat, Allen.[ The preposition underneath shows the relationship of coat to book.]
The one behind us honked his horn.[The preposition behind shows the relationship of us to one.]
Chapter 4: Prepositional Phrases, Independent and Subordinate Clauses, Sentence Structure
EXAMPLE: The man from Singapore was giving a speech. [ The preposition from shows the relationship between the object Singapore and the noun man.]
The tree in front of the window blocks our view.[ The compound preposition in front of shows the relationship between the object window and the noun tree. The modifies window.]
Please hand me the book on the long, green table. [ The preposition on shows the relationship between the object table and the noun book. The adjectives the, long, and green modify table.
ADJECTIVE: a white cat
ADJECTIVE PHRASE: A cat with white fur [With white fur does not have a subject and verb.]
ADJECTIVE CLAUSE: a cat that has white fur [That has white fur has a subject, that, and a verb, has.]
ADVERB: Shyly, the toddler hid behind her mother.
ADVERB PHRASE:With a shy smile, the toddler hid behind her mother.[With a shy smile does not have a subject and verb.]
ADVERB CLAUSE: Since the toddler was shy, she hid behind her mother.[ Since the toddler was shy has a subject, toddler, and a verb, was.]
EXAMPLE: I picked up the branches that had fallen during the storm, and Rosa mowed the grass.
independent clause: I picked up the branches
independent clause: Rosa mowed the grass
subordinate clause: that had fallen during the storm
Chapter 5: Complements, Direct and Indirect Objects, Subject Complements
EXAMPLE: I gave that problem some thought.[ The noun problem is the indirect object of the verb gave and answers the question " To what did I give some thought?"]
Chapter 6: Agreement, Subject and Verb, Pronoun and Antecedent.
Problems in Agreement, Phrases Between Subject and Verb
EXAMPLES: These shades of blue are my favorite colors.
However, if the subject is the indefinite pronoun all,any, more,most, none, or some, its number may be determined by the object of the prepositional phrase that follows it.
EXAMPLES: Some of the oranges are gone.[Some refers to the plural noun oranges.]
Some of the fruit is gone.[Some refers to the singular noun fruit.]
EXAMPLES:One of the stars is from my home town.
EXAMPLES: Red and blue are the school's colors.
Singular subjects that are joined by or or nor take a singular verb.
EXAMPLE:A new marble statue or a fountain has been planned for the park.
Plural subjects joined by or or nor take a plural verb.
EXAMPLE:Either potatoes or beans are served with the baked chicken.
When a singular subject and a plural subject are joined by or or nor, the verb agrees with the subject nearer the verb.
EXAMPLE: Either the engineers or their boss has made this mistake.[The singular helping verb has agrees with the nearer subject, boss.]
The Contractions Don't and Doesn't
EXAMPLE: I don't have my keys. Dogs don't meow.
The word doesn't is the contraction of does not. Use doesn't with all singular subject except the pronouns I and you.
EXAMPLE: He doesn't know you. Don doesn't like thunder.
Agreement of Pronoun and Antecedent
EXAMPLE: Rosa said she lost her glasses.
A pronoun should agree with its antecedent in number.
EXAMPLE:Please put the lawn mower away after you have finished using it.
Use a singular pronoun to refer to the indefinite pronouns anybody, anyone, anything, each, either, everybody, everyone, everything, neither, nobody, no one, nothing, one, somebody, someone, and something.
EXAMPLE:Has one of the hamsters hurt its leg.
Use a plural pronoun to refer to the indefinite pronouns both, few, many, and several.
EXAMPLE:Both of the birds had hidden their nests well.
The indefinite pronouns all, any, more, most, none, and, some may be singular or plural, depending on their meaning in a sentence.
EXAMPLE:None of the cereal has lost its crunch.[None is singular because it refers to the singular noun cereal.]
Use a singular pronoun to refer to two or more singular antecedents joined by or or nor.
EXAMPLE:Either Miguel or Randell has his paintings on display.
Use a plural pronoun to refer to two or more antecedents joined by and.
EXAMPLE: When Tyrell and Davis get home, their will be surprised.
Chapter 7: Using Verbs Correctly, Principal Parts,Regular and Irregular Verbs, Tense
Principal Parts of Verbs
As you can see from their names,the principal parts of a verb are used to express time.
PRESENT TIME: She wears a blue uniform.
PAST TIME: Yesterday, we wore sweaters.
FUTURE TIME: Jessica will wear her new dress at the party.
EXAMPLE: I have begun to learn karate.
present: we wear
past: we wore
future: we will(shall) wear
present perfect: we have worn
past perfect:we had worn
future perfect: we will(shall) have worn
Consistency of Tense
INCONSISTENT: The cat jumped onto the counter and steals the sandwich.[The events happen at about the same time, but jumped is in the past tense, and steals it in the present tense.]
CONSISTENT: The cat jumped onto the counter and stole the sandwich.[Both verbs are in the past tense.]
CONSISTENT: The cat jumps onto the counter and steals the sandwich.[ Both verbs are in the present tense.]
Six Confusing Verbs: Sit and Set
EXAMPLE:I will sit in the easy chair.[no direct object]
I will set the cushion in the easy chair.[ I will set what? Cushion is the direct object.]
Rise and Raise
EXAMPLE: The winner is rising to receive his medal.[no direct object]
The winner is raising her arms in triumph.[The winner is raising what? Arms is the direct object.]
Lie and Lay
EXAMPLE: The beam is lying near the edge.[no direct object]
The workers are laying the beams near the edge.[ The workers are laying what? Beams is the direct object.]
Chapter 7:Using Pronouns Correctly, Subject and Object Forms
Pronoun as Predicate Nominative
EXAMPLE:The next singer is she.[She completes the meaning pf the linking verb is and identifies the subject singer.]
The Object Form: Pronoun as Direct Object
EXAMPLE: The teacher thanked me for cleaning the chalkboard.[Teacher is the subject of the verb thanked.The teacher thanked whom? The direct object is me.]
The Object Form: Pronoun as Indirect Object
EXAMPLE: Scott handed me a note.[Scott handed what? Note is the direct object. To whom did he hand a note? The indirect object is me.]
Pronoun as Object of a Preposition
EXAMPLE:The lemonade stand was built by Chuck and me.
Pron ouns with Appositives
Example: ( We,Us) Girl Scouts swan laps.[Girl Scouts is the appositive identifying the pronoun. We swam laps or Us swam laps?]
CORRECT: We Girl Scouts swam laps.
Chapter 9:Using Modifiers Correctly, Comparison and Placement
What Is a Modifier
Comparison of Adjectives and Adverbs
The positive degree is used when only one thing is being modified and no comparison is being made
EXAMPLE: Felita is a good book.
The comparative degree is used when two things are being compared.
EXAMPLES:in my opinion,Nilda is a better book than Felita.
The superlative degree is used when three or more things are being compared.
EXAMPLES:Nilda is one of the best books I've read.
happier,happiest,;less happy,least happy
calmer,calmest; less calm, least calm
Let's see which of the two teams can wash___cars.
Avoid using Double Comparison
NONSTANDARD:That was the actor's most scariest role.
STANDARD:That was the actor's scariest role.
Placement of Modifiers
EXAMPLES: The singer from Brazil gave a radio interview for her fans.[The phrase modifies singer.]
The singer gave a radio interview for her fans from Brazil.[The phrase modifies fans.]
Adjectives and Adverbs
EXAMPLE:Jackie borrowed some camping equipment only for the weekend.[She borrowed the equipment for the weekend, not for any other time.]
MISPLACED: Ms. Ruiz got a sweater for her dog with a snowflake pattern.
CLEAR: Ms.Ruiz got a sweater with a snowflake pattern for her dog.
MISPLACED: Mrs.Chu gives the sculptures to her friends that she carves.[Does Mrs. Chu carve her friends?]
CLEAR: Mrs.Chu gives the sculptures that she carves to her friends.