Tropical Grassland ( Savannah )

Nguyen Hoang & Anjali Philipose

Biomes terrian

The tropical grassland (savanna) is a rolling grassland scattered with shrubs and isolated trees. This can be found between tropical rainforest and deserts. Features such as rives, hills, and gullies can appear

Climate

    The savanna climate has a temperature range of 20° - 30° C. In the winter, it is usually about 20° - 25° C. In the summer the temperature ranges from 25° - 30° C. In a Savanna the temperature does not change a lot. There is an annual precipitation of 10 to 30 inches (100 to 150 cm) of rain. From December to February hardly any rain falls at all.


Plant species and their adaptations

The Adansonia, or as known as the baobab tree, contains unique adaptations that makes it survive in the savanna. The baobab tree, like many trees, produces their leaves during the "wet season". Their leaves are usually in tiny-finger like clusters. The small size helps limit water loss. In long months of drought, the baobab tree store water in its large trunks. Another known tree in the savanna is the acacia tree. It contains long tap roots that can reach ground water sources. The baobab tree is also fire resistant and contain sharp thorns to discourage animals from eating its leaves. The areparalobrium (whistling thorn), pupureum (elephant grass), mespiliformis (jackal berry tree), red oat grass, star grass, etc are some of the many plants in the savanna.

Animal species and their adaptations

There are many animals with adaptations that help them survive in the savanna. Animals include the zebra (Equus zebra), hyena (hydaenidae), cheetah (acinonyx jubatus), lion (panthera leo), leopard (panthera pardus), hare, mouse , harvester ant, Impala, etc. One specific animal in particular is the elephant (Africana); known for its strong trunk and function has the ability to tear open the large trunk of a baobab tree. The elephant can then suck the water out of the trunk. Fire is a common in the savanna, animals are adapted to run away. One animal in particular, Fork Tailed Drongos (Dicrurus adsimilis) feast on fleeing or flame roasted insects. Some may not have the ability to outrun the fire, so they dig beneath the soil and remain there til the flames pass them. When dry season begins, birds and large mammals usually migrate. Another adaptation is in the wild dog (Lycaon pictus) . The wild dog has tremendous endurance to chase and eventually kill their prey.

Food web

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Food Pyramid

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Humans' Impact

Humans' Impact

1) In savannah,there's limited trees. One way humans positively influence the biome is they create biomes,by slashing the vegetation and burning the debris . This agricultural method is known as the Slash-and-Burn agriculture. The purpose of doing this is the soil will be more healthy and the seed is preserved.

Buried seeds sprout

The biome becomes a mature or recovered forest with a variety of living forms

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2) Increasing more fires can spread and damage the soil.

Humans in the past has negatively deteriorated the savannah biome environmental landscape. Since vegetation is destroyed,some animals has to rely on their prey to obtain their energy,but this a struggle for animals because human practices such as hunting declined the number of life in the biome for the animals flesh.

For example, elephants for many years were shot for the tush and lions for their fur.

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3) Humans impacted the environment in a negative way by taking much of the land to input infrastructure and for industrialization.

Infrastructure: water dams

Industrialization: factories, businesses

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Stages of Succession

Ecological succession

Is the observed process of change in the species structure of an ecological community over time


- Secondary Succession

Interesting Fact

Biome facts

The savannah has many unique factors like it's climates,animals and the beautiful features in the forest.

1) As you know the world's largest tropical savannah is the Australian Tropical savannah,which has dense grasses and spread with varieties of trees that survive in the dry-hot weather. Vegetation that mostly inhabit in this area is the Red Oak,Acacia and Manketti tree.


2) The climates in a savannah are dry and rainy. These climates occur seasonally at an extreme level.


3) Savannahs are near the equator. Countries like Africa,India and Australia are places where biomes extensively are inhibited.


4) In the Australian savannah, Marsupials dominate among the animals. They are mammals.


5) The Acacia tree is the most common tree,which produce human gum Arabic- are polysaccharides found in the woody elements of plants or in the seed coating, which is used as a stabilizer in the food industry and is a key ingredient in other industries.

Bibliography

Citations

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"Human Impact - Grassland Savanna." Human Impact - Grassland Savanna. N.p., n.d. Web. 10 Nov. 2015.



"Earth Floor: Biomes." Earth Floor: Biomes. N.p., n.d. Web. 10 Nov. 2015.


"Environmental Biology Sequence - Grasslands." Environmental Biology Sequence - Grasslands. N.p., n.d. Web. 10 Nov. 2015.




"Savanna Animals." Savanna Animals. N.p., n.d. Web. 10 Nov. 2015.






"Environment." The Savanna Biome. N.p., n.d. Web. 10 Nov. 2015.