Ford Motor Company exceeds market capitalization of $1 Billion
Table of Contents
- Court Cases
- Scopes Monkey Trial
- Innovations, Innovators, and culture
- Controversial Issue
- Political Cartoon and Analysis
The Emergency Quota Act, also known as the Emergency Immigration Act of 1921 restricted immigration into the United States.
The Immigration Act of 1924, or Johnson–Reed Act, made permanent the basic limitations on immigration into the United States established in 1921 and modified the National Origins Formula established then. In conjunction with the Immigration Act of 1917, it governed American immigration policy until the passage of the Immigration and Nationality Act of 1952, which revised it completely.
The 1917 Act implemented a literacy test that required immigrants over 16 years old to demonstrate basic reading comprehension in any language. It also increased the tax paid by new immigrants upon arrival and allowed immigration officials to exercise more discretion in making decisions over whom to exclude.
Ku Klux Klan
Spreading far beyond its roots in the Reconstruction South, the resurgent Klan of the 1920s was a short-lived but potent phenomenon. By equating white Anglo-Saxon Protestantism with "true Americanism," it fueled intolerance for blacks, Catholics, Jews, and immigrants.
Warren G. Harding
Warren Gamaliel Harding (November 2, 1865 – August 2, 1923) was the 29th President of the United States, serving from March 4, 1921 until his death. Harding died as one of the most popular presidents in history, however exposure of scandals that took place under him, such as the Teapot Dome, eroded his popular regard, as did reports of an affair by Nan Britton, one of his mistresses.
Teapot Dome Scandal
The Teapot Dome scandal was a bribery incident that took place in the United States from 1921 to 1922, during the administration of President Warren G. Harding. Secretary of the Interior Albert Bacon Fall had leased Navy petroleum reserves at Teapot Dome in Wyoming and two other locations in California to private oil companies at low rates without competitive bidding.
Kellogg Briand Pact
Kellogg Briand Pact is a 1928 international agreement where signatory states promised not to use war to resolve disputes or conflicts of whatever nature or of whatever origin they may be, which may arise among them. It was signed by Germany, France and the United States on August 27, 1928, and by most other nations soon after. Sponsored by France and the U.S., the Pact renounces the use of war and calls for the peaceful settlement of disputes.
The Red Scare refers to the fear of communism in the USA during the 1920’s. It is said that there were over 150,000 anarchists or communists in USA in 1920 alone and this represented only 0.1% of the overall population of the USA. There was a nationwide campaign in the United States against the real and imagined divided political loyalties of immigrants and ethnic groups, who were feared to have too much loyalty for their home nations.
The Palmer Raids were a series of raids by the United States Department of Justice intended to capture, arrest and deport radical leftists, especially anarchists, from the United States. The raids and arrests were in November 1919 and January 1920 under the leadership of Attorney General A. Mitchell Palmer. More than 500 foreign citizens were deported, including a number of prominent leftist leaders.
Sacco & Vanzetti
Nicola Sacco and Bartolomeo Vanzetti were Italian-born US anarchists who were convicted of murdering a guard and a paymaster during the armed robbery of the Slater and Morrill Shoe Company, committed April 15, 1920, in South Braintree, Massachusetts, United States, and were executed by the electric chair seven years later at Charlestown State Prison. Both adhered to an anarchist movement that advocated relentless warfare against the government.
Schenck vs United States
Schenck vs United States (1919), the Supreme Court invented the "clear and present danger" test to determine when a state could constitutionally limit an individual's free speech rights under the First Amendment. In reviewing the conviction of a man charged with distributing provocative flyers to draftees of World War I, the Court decided that, words can create a "clear and present danger" that Congress may constitutionally prohibit. While the ruling has since been overturned, Schenck is still significant for creating the context-based balancing tests used in reviewing freedom of speech challenges.
Scopes Monkey Trial
Scopes was a teacher in Dayton, Tennessee, who was charged on May 5, 1925 for violating Tennessee's Butler Act, which prohibited the teaching of evolution in Tennessee schools. He was tried in a case known as the Scopes Trial, in which he was found guilty and fined $100.
In 1925, Darrow defended John T. Scopes in the State of Tennessee v. Scopes trial. It has often been called the "Scopes Monkey Trial," a title popularized by author and journalist H.L. Mencken. The trial pitted Darrow against William Jennings Bryan in an American court case that tested the Butler Act, which had been passed on March 21, 1925. The act forbade the teaching of "the Evolution Theory" in any state-funded educational establishment in Tennessee.
William Jennings Bryan
The prosecution of scopes was led by William Jennings Bryan, three-time presidential candidate and former secretary of state. The "Great Commoner" was the perfect representative of the rural values he dedicated his life to defend. Bryan was a Christian who lobbied for a constitutional amendment banning the teaching of evolution throughout the nation.
July 21, 1925: Scopes 'Monkey Trial' Ends With Guilty Verdict. 1925: John Scopes, an unassuming high school biology teacher and part-time football coach, is found guilty of teaching evolution in schools, in violation of Tennessee law.
Innovations, Innovators, and Culture
In the 1920s the motorcar came to represent the American dream, by offering independence and adventure. Cars fell in price dramatically, so that many Americans could afford them. They could be sold to a mass market because they could be made more cheaply, using assembly line methods. Henry Ford’s Assembly line brought the average price of a car down from $850 in 1908 to $250 in 1925. As a result, car factories paid high wages and jobs were sought after.
The 1920s earned the "Roaring Twenties" through the decade's real and sustained prosperity, dizzying technological advancements, and lively culture. The decade marked the flourishing of the modern mass-production, mass-consumption economy, which delivered fantastic profits to investors while also raising the living standard of the urban middle- and working-class.
The 1920 Census determined for the first time that more Americans lived in cities than in the countryside. The margin was narrow -- 51 to 49 -- but none the less it was a key turning point in our nation's history. Farmers faced tough times. While most Americans enjoyed relative prosperity for most of the 1920s, the Great Depression for the American farmer really began after World War I. Much of the Roaring '20s was a continual cycle of debt for the American farmer, stemming from falling farm prices and the need to purchase expensive machinery.
Political Cartoon and Analysis
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