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Nucleus

(general) The core or the central part around which other parts are grouped or gathered.

(biology) The large, membrane-bounded organelle that contains the genetic material, in the form of multiple linear DNA molecules organized into structures called chromosomes.

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Nucleolus: A small, typically round granular body composed of protein and RNA in the nucleus of a cell. It is usually associated with a specific chromosomal site and involved in ribosomal RNA synthesis and the formation of ribosomes.

Mitochondria

Mitochondria are known as the powerhouses of the cell. They are organelles that act like a digestive system that takes in nutrients, breaks them down, and creates energy for the cell. The process of creating cell energy is known as cellular respiration. Most of the chemical reactions involved in cellular respiration happen in the mitochondria. A mitochondrion is shaped perfectly to maximize its efforts.

Golgi

The Golgi apparatus or Golgi complex is found in most cells. It is another packaging organelle like the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). It was named after Camillo Golgi, an Italian biologist. It is pronounced GOL-JI in the same way you would say squee-gie, as soft a "G" sound. While layers of membranes may look like the rough ER, they have a very different function.


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Smooth E.R.

Another organelle in the cell is the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). While the function of the nucleus is to act as the cell brain, the ER functions as a packaging system. It does not work alone. The ER works closely with the Golgi apparatus, ribososmes, RNA, mRNA, and tRNA. It creates a network of membranes found through the whole cell. The ER may also look different from cell to cell, depending on the cell's function. Smooth E R (SER) is associated with the production and metabolism of fats and steroid hormones. It is 'smooth' because it is not studded with ribosomes and is associated with smooth slippery fats.


Rough E.R.

Rough E R (RER) is involved in some protein production, protein folding, quality control and despatch. It is called 'rough' because it is studded with ribosomes


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Ribosomes

Ribosomes are cell organelles that consist of RNA and proteins. They are responsible for assembling the proteins of the cell. Depending on the protein production level of a particular cell, ribosomes may number in the millions.


Vacuole

are storage bubbles found in cells. They are found in both animal and plant cells but are much larger in plant cells. Vacuoles might store food or any variety of nutrients a cell might need to survive. They can even store waste products so the rest of the cell is protected from contamination. Eventually, those waste products would be sent out of the cell.


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Chloroplast

are the food producers of the cell. They are only found in plant cells and some protists. Animal cells do not have chloroplasts. Every green plant you see is working to convert the energy of the sun into sugars. Plants are the basis of all life on Earth. They create sugars, and the byproduct of that process is the oxygen that we breathe. That process happens in the chloroplast. Mitochondria work in the opposite direction and break down the sugars and nutrients that the cell receives.