Many people, a few, or one person has all the power.
Each branch of government has the ability to check another and prevent too much power.
Checks and balances allow the Legislative branch, Judicial branch, and Executive branch to check one another and prevent them from having too much power. The Legislative branch can check the Judicial branch by confirming a nominated president and impeaching judges and removing them from government. The Judicial branch can check the Executive branch by declaring a presidents deeds unconstitutional. The Executive branch can check the Legislative branch when the President chooses against Congressional legislation. These checks are three of the ways branches can have equal power.
The Separation of powers will guard against tyranny.
When everyone has their own jobs, they all have equal power. The Legislative branch makes the laws, the Executive branch enforces laws, and the Judicial branch interprets laws. To prevent too much power, nobody is allowed to be elected to the House of Representatives and appointed to the Supreme Court at the same time. This way nobody can have the powers from two jobs. With this law in play, people don't just get to do what they prefer because of power. Instead they must separate the power, in order for people to be equal.
Federalism inhibits the National Government and State Government from taking all power away from the Nation and the Nation's people
The people of the Nation will feel more secured and safe because the National Government and the State Government will have checks on each other just like the branches of government. The State Government will have more power to control local and personal issues because they are more in touch with the country's own culture. Where as the National Government will have more power over worldwide country issues. This way the power will be spread out and equal.
The small state, large state compromise assured protection from tyranny.
The compromise prevented larger populated states from dominating the smaller populated states. Even though the larger states have more representation inthe House of Representatives, it's not tyranny because the smaller states have equal representation in senate. This prevents tyranny because power between the larger and smaller states is balanced.