Classifying the Colonies

By: Analiese Gerald 4th pd.

Jamestown

· Settled in 1607 the year that started British colonization in North America

· Founded by a joint stock company, The Virginia Company of London, but later when the King became unhappy with the colony, it became a royal colony

· Settled by upper class young men, many of whom were the younger son who didn’t receive the family inheritance so they came to the New World in hope to find their own riches

· Nearly collapsed during first couple years because the colonist weren't experienced on survival. The colony only survived because the British kept sending more men over

· Captain John smith was the first good leader and helped the colony by organizing it’s men

· Starving Time (winter 1609-1610) when John Smith left nearly wiped out colony

· John Ralph known as the long term savior of Jamestown by starting the farming of tobacco which profited the colony greatly

· House of Burgesses government where all free adult men could vote for representatives and was the first representative legislative body in the North American British colonies

· Good relations with Native Americans went downhill fast when English raided Algonquian’s camps for supplies which causes the long conflict between Indian’s and colonist


Pennsylvania

· Founded by William Penn who was a Quaker and was named after his father

· Financed by King Charles the 3rd who owed a debt to William Penn’s father

· Founded in 1682 making it the second to last colony established

· Home for Quakers who believed in equality of all men

· Established the “Religious Society of Friends” which implied that everyone was a friend and citizens lived accordingly

· “Holy Experiment” was meant to practice the Quaker ways in the New World

· Practiced friendly relations with the Native Americans who helped benefit their colony

· Philadelphia was a huge commercial center, benefiting the economy

· Slavery occurred though was frowned upon due to Quaker beliefs

· Was a thriving colony that attracted many settlers


Maryland

· Founded around 1632 making it the 4th colony established

· Since the King thought that colonies who had just one investor would be easier to control, Maryland became first proprietary colony

· Proprietor was George Calvert or Lord Baltimore who was Catholic

· Was made as a refuge for Catholics who were not welcomed in the Protestant England

· Act of Religious Toleration: guaranteed rights to all Christians so gave toleration to Catholics

· Escaped starvation by quickly learning how to farm

· Were big producers of Tobacco which assisted the economy

· Plantations were first maintained by indentured servants making many of the population poor

· Slave state and remained so until the end of the Civil War

· After economic suffering, sought to diversify economy by expanding to grow more crops than tobacco


Georgia

· Last colony of the original 13 colonies

· Named after the current King George who granted the charter to create the colony

· Founded in 1732 the stopping point of founding colonies

· Founded by James Oglethorpe who was a philanthropist

· Created as a buffer area in between South Carolina and Florida who was controlled by competitor Spain, so Oglethorpe required military service from citizens to protect from the Spanish

· Battle of Bloody Marsh where Georgians defeated the attacking Spaniards proving the need for a buffer colony

· Created as a haven for England’s poor and in debt

· Had no representative government

· Tried to keep out slavery though failed when Carolinians migrated there bringing slaves


Massachusetts

· Founded in 1620, making it the 2nd colony founded

· Established by the Massachusetts Bay Company through a charted granted by King Charles

· Company’s headquarters were located in the colony which gave it a great amount of autonomy from Britain

· Leader was John Winthrop who gave an important sermon on the people being “A city on a hill” for “the eyes of all people to see”

· Haven for puritans, separatist and eventually non separatist

· “The Great Migration” was known as when more the 20,000 puritans migrated to Massachusetts

· Most settlers were from the middle class: farmers, textile workers, so unlike Jamestown they knew how to survive

· Again unlike Jamestown, Massachusetts attracted families, making the colony thrive

· As puritans the settlers were hard working and wanted cohesive communities further leading to the success of the colony

· Land wasn’t friendly to farming so the economy consisted of lumber and fishing industries