Period 4; Larissa, Ethan, Brent, Sydney

The Struggle For Independence in Asia and Africa

After WWII, it became difficult for European powers keep their colonies because it opposed the rights they were fighting for; therefore, the colonies became determined to gain independence.


The Indian National Congress and the Muslim League in India fought together to gain independence resulting n the Amritsar massacre in 1919, British General Dyer Slaughtered both Hindu and Muslim who were participating in peaceful protest. Mohandas Gandhi promoted nonviolent protests. Although Hindu and Muslim people had problems,Gandhi helped put issues aside to end British rule. The Muslim League also pushed for a Muslim nation, later known as Pakistan.
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India's Independence and Pakistan's Creation

Independence was gained in 1947 and separated into two three parts, India, Pakistan, and east Pakistan, otherwise know as Bangladesh. Many migrant movements to their respective countries caused religious problems. The internal conflict led to Gandhi being killed by a Hindu who was mad at his motivations to separate the conflicting groups. Even today, terrorism is an issue between the two nations with greater problems caused by nuclear warfare.


The African National Congress fought to gain more rights for African people within the nation, this congress opposed European Colonialism. After South Africa, nations north of the Sahara fought for independence. First Egypt won independence in 1922, then General Nasser overthrew the king and established a republic. South of the Sahara the struggle was more difficult, because the population was less educated.

Rwanda: Ethnic Genocide

Rwanda gained independence in 1962 and the majority of the population, Hutu, revolted against the minority population's leadership, Tutsi. Later with a devastating genocide of 800,000 Tutsi, Rwanda experienced one of the worst genocides of our time.

The South African Apartheid

Racial segregation began in South Africa in the early 1900s. In the struggle for freedom against brutal conditions, Mandela was imprisoned. After nearly 4 decades of pressure, Mandela was freed and apartheid was abolished.
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The Middle East

The Ottoman empire finally fell which now is called Turkey. France and Britain gained control over parts over in the middle east such as Jordan and Iraq. The Middle East during the 20th century had a lot go down, but lead to modern day Israel.

Israel: Balfour Declares a Mess

Palestine was home to the Jews since way back to the Roman Empire as they saw this as the promised land. Arthur Balfour created the Balfour deceleration of 1917 which allowed Jews for a home in Palestine. With all these Jews coming into Palestine it gained a lot of people, but the Palestine people still outnumbered the Jews.

The Iranian Revolution

Reza Shah Pahlavi gained power in Iran in 1925, and sought to use Western culture to get stronger, but the western ways made many Muslims angry. Even with growing violence, Pahlavi used western ways and eventually was overthrown for a traditional Islamic rule, which took away many western ways.

Iraq and Iran didn't like each other, and Iraq invaded Iran with support from the U.S, thus starting the Iraq-Iran war. Since Khomeini's death, Iran has had tensions between Muslims and pro- Westerners. They started a nuclear weapon program, which concerned many, along with Iran and Iraq's Shia Muslim relationship.

Oil: Enormous amoun