EGYPT

All About Egypt

~Main Religion of Eygpt~

Islam is the main religion of Egypt.

~Piece of Artwork~

There are many beautiful paintings and pictures about and from Egypt. This picture was painted by Ragheb Ayad in 1938.

~The Major Lanuguage~

The main language of Egypt is Standard Arabic.

~A Custom in Egypt~

In Egyptian weddings, they have many customs. One of them is what happens the night before the ceremony. The bride and guests go to the bride's family's house. The bride gets dressed up into pink dresses made up of silk and cotton fibers, and they sing and dance all night long. The groom and his guests go to his family's house. Then he gets dressed into an expensive suit and sings and dances all night.

~An Egyptian folktale: The Prince & His Three Fates~

Once upon a time a child was born to a king and queen who ruled over a great country on the banks of the Nile River. The royal parents were nearly beside themselves with joy, and they sent invitations at once to the most powerful fairies to come and see this wonderful baby. In an hour or two, so many were gathered round the cradle, that the child seemed in danger of being smothered; but the king, who was watching the fairies eagerly, was disturbed to see them looking grave.

"Is there anything the matter?" he asked anxiously.

"It is fated that he must die either by a crocodile, or a serpent, or by a dog. If we could save him we would; but that is beyond our power." And so saying they vanished.

For a time the king and queen stood where they were, horrorstricken at what they had heard; but, being of a hopeful nature, they began at once to invent plans to save the prince from the dreadful doom that awaited him. The king sent for his master builder, and told him to make a fine castle, with everything the prince wanted in it. The baby prince grew up in the castle for the next four or five years. One day, when the prince was old enough to run quite fast by himself, he looked from the terrace across the moat, and saw a dog jumping and playing on the other side. Now, of course, all dogs had been kept away from him for fear that the fairies' prophecy should come true, and he had never even seen one before. So be turned to the page who was walking behind him, and said, "What is that funny little thing which is running so fast over there?"

"That is a dog, prince," answered the page.

"Well, bring me one like it, and we will see which can run the faster."

The page was much puzzled. He had strict orders to refuse the prince nothing, yet he remembered the prophecy, and felt that this was a serious matter. At last he thought he had better tell the king the whole story, and let him decide the question.

"Oh, get him a dog if he wants one" said the king, "he will only cry his heart out if he does not have it." So a puppy was found, exactly like the other.

Years went by, and the boy and the dog played together till the boy grew tall and strong. The time came at last when he sent a message to his father, saying:

"Why do you keep me shut up here, doing nothing? I know all about the prophecy that was made at my birth, but I would far rather be killed at once than live such an idle, useless life here trapped here on this mountain. I beg you, Father, give me arms, and let me go; me and my dog too."

The king listened to his wishes, and the young prince and his dog were carried in a ship to the other side of the Nile River. Never was any prince so happy as he, and he rode and rode till at length he came to a king's palace. There he presented himself and the king took a fancy to the youth. His daughter also took a fancy to him also and he to her. Soon they fell in love, and were betrothed to be married.

"There is one thing you must know about me," the prince said to his betrothed. "I was fated at birth to die in the hands of one of three creatures -- a crocodile, a serpent, or a dog. If you choose not to marry me, I understand."

"I love you, no matter what happens," said the princess. "But how rash you are! How can you have that horrid beast about you, knowing what you know? I will give orders to have him killed at once."

But the prince would not listen. And all that the princess could get from him was that he would always wear a sword, and have someone with him at all times when he left the palace. When the prince and princess had been married a few months, the prince heard that his mother had passed away, and that his father was old and ill, and that he longed to have his eldest son by his side again. The young man and his bride set out on a journey back to his native land. That first night that they had arrived, while he was asleep, the princess noticed something strange in one of the corners of the room. It was a dark patch, and seemed, as she looked, to grow longer and longer, and to be moving slowly towards the cushions on which the prince was lying. She shrank in terror, but, slight as was the noise she had made, the thing heard it, and raised its head to listen. Then she saw it was the long flat head of a serpent, and the recollection of the prophecy rushed into her mind.

Without waking her husband, she glided out of bed, and taking up a heavy bowl of milk which stood on a table, laid it upon the floor in the path of the serpent -- for she knew that no serpent in the world can resist milk. She held her breath as the snake drew near, and watched it rear up its head again as if it was smelling something nice, while its forked tongue darted out greedily. At length its eyes fell upon the milk, and in an instant it was lapping it up so fast that it was a wonder the creature did not choke, for it never took its head from the bowl as long as a drop was left in it. After that it dropped on the ground and slept heavily. Summoning her guards, she ordered the serpent to be captured into a large basket and sent to a far away land.

Soon after their arrival, the old king, sadly, died. They gave him a magnificent burial, and then the prince had to examine the new laws which had been made in his absence, and do a great deal of other business besides, till he grew quite ill from fatigue, and was obliged to go away to one of his palaces on the banks of the river in order to rest. Here he soon got better, and began to hunt, and wherever he went, his dog, went with him. One morning the prince and his dog were out as usual, and in chasing their game they drew near the bank of the Nile River. The prince was running at full speed after his dog when he almost fell over something that looked like a log of wood, which was lying in his path. To his surprise a voice spoke to him, and he saw that the thing which he had taken for a branch was really a crocodile.

"You cannot escape from me. I am your fate, and wherever you go, and whatever you do, you will always find me before you. There is only one means of shaking off my power. If you can dig a pit in dry sand which will remain full of water, my spell will be broken. If not death will come to you speedily. I give you this one chance. Now go."

The young man walked sadly away, and when he reached the palace he shut himself into his room, and for the rest of the day refused to see anyone. By sunset, the princess grew quite frightened, and convinced him to let her in.

"How pale you look," she cried, "has anything hurt you? Tell me, I pray you, what is the matter?" So the prince told her the whole story.

"How can a sand hole remain full of water?" asked he. "Of course it will all run through. The crocodile called it a 'chance' , but he might as well have dragged me into the river right then and there. Truly, I cannot escape him."

"Oh, if that is all," cried the princess, "I can set you free myself, for my fairy godmother taught me to know the use of plants and in the desert not far from here there grows a little four-leafed herb which can keep water in a pit for a whole year. I will go in search of it at dawn, and you can begin to dig the hole so that it's ready on my return."

She left the palace on a donkey, and rode away from the Nile River straight to the west. For some time she could see nothing before her but a flat waste of sand, which became hotter and hotter as the sun rose higher and higher. Then a dreadful thirst seized her and the donkey, but there was no stream to quench it, and if there had been she would hardly have had time to stop, for she still had far to go, and must be back before evening, or else the crocodile might declare that the prince had not fulfilled his conditions.

How glad they both were when they caught sight of a tall rock in the distance. Though the donkey was content to rest, the princess could not, for the plant, as she knew, grew on the very top of the rock, and a wide chasm ran round the foot of it. Luckily she had brought a rope with her, and making a noose at one end, she flung it across the chasm. The noose caught on something, the princess could not see what, and had to trust her whole weight to the rope, which might snap and let her fall.

Bit by bit, with torn and bleeding hands, she gained the top. There she found the plant and plucking a leaf she held it safe in her hand while she turned to go down the rock. She slid down the rock, jumped over the chasm with her rope as she had done before, and set off with her donkey.

They returned to the Nile River and the princess rushed to the prince. He was standing by the pit he had dug in the dry sand, with a huge water pot beside it. The prince poured the water into the hole, and flung in the four-leafed plant. For half an hour they stood with their eyes rooted to the spot, but the hole remained as full as at the beginning, with the little green leaf floating on the top. Then the prince turned with a shout of triumph, and the crocodile, who had also been watching, went back into the river. The prince had escaped forever the second of his three fates!


"My wife," he said, "You have been stronger than my fate."

~A traditional Egyptian dish: Koshary~

Ingredients

  • 1 (14.5 ounce) can chickpeas, drained and rinsed
  • 1/4 cup red wine vinegar
  • 1 teaspoon ground coriander
  • 1 teaspoon ground cayenne pepper
  • 1/2 teaspoon ground cumin
  • 1/2 (16 ounce) package ditalini pasta
  • 1 1/2 cups short-grain rice, rinsed
  • 1 1/2 cups dark brown lentils
  • 1 pinch salt and ground black pepper
  • 1 tablespoon olive oil
  • 1 yellow onion, minced
  • 3 cloves garlic, minced
  • 1 (14 ounce) can crushed tomatoes
  • 1 tablespoon butter
  • 3 cups chicken stock
  • 1 (3 ounce) can french-fried onions

Directions

  1. Combine the chickpeas, vinegar, coriander, cayenne pepper, and cumin in a resealable bag or container with a tight-fitting lid. Store in refrigerator while prepping remainder of dish, shaking occasionally.
  2. Bring a pot of lightly salted water to a rolling boil. Cook the ditalini pasta in the boiling water until cooked through yet firm to the bite, about 8 minutes; drain and set aside.
  3. Combine the rice with enough cold water to cover; allow to soak for 20 minutes. Drain.
  4. Meanwhile, combine the lentils with enough water to cover in a pot; season with salt and pepper. Bring the lentils to a boil and cook at a boil until tender, about 30 minutes. Drain.
  5. Heat the olive oil in a saucepan over medium-high heat; cook and stir the onion and garlic in the hot oil until translucent, 5 to 7 minutes. Add the crushed tomatoes, season with salt and pepper, reduce heat to medium-low, and maintain at a simmer while preparing remainder of dish.
  6. Melt the butter in a pot over medium-high heat. Add the rice to the butter, increase heat to high, and fry for 4 to 5 minutes, stirring constantly. Pour the chicken stock over the rice; bring to a boil. Season the rice mixture with salt and pepper, reduce heat to low, cover the pot, and cook until rice is tender, and the liquid had been absorbed, about 20 minutes.
  7. Mix the rice and lentils together on a large serving platter. Spread the cooked ditalani over the rice and lentil mixture. Serve with the marinated chickpeas, the tomato sauce, and the french-fried onions as condiments.

~Population of Egypt~

Egypt's population is 80.72 million

~Map of Egypt~

Big image

~Missionaries to Egypt~

Though we could not find true missionaries to Egypt, our group did find an Christian organization that helps spread the gospel there. The organization is called Christian Aid and it was founded by Bob Finley in 1953. Christian Aid sends native missionaries and helpers where missionaries from other countries are not allowed to go to anymore. The Director of Christian Aid in Africa is Rae Burnett. Here is the link to the organization website if you would like to learn more about Christian Aid: http://blogs.christianpost.com/christianaid/cairo-missionaries-upbeat-still-hopeful-about-rebuilding-egypt-5151/

~What are the Sources~

"Religion in Egypt." Religious Practices. N.p., n.d. Web. 25 Sept. 2014.


"Tour Egypt :: The Egyptian Modern Art Museum." The Egyptian Modern Art Museum. N.p., n.d. Web. 25 Sept. 2014.


"Egypt." Ethnologue. N.p., n.d. Web. 25 Sept. 2014.


"Egyptian Marriage Customs of the Past and Present." Muslim Bedouin Weddings. N.p., n.d. Web. 25 Sept. 2014.


"People of Egypt." People of Egypt. N.p., n.d. Web. 25 Sept. 2014.


"Flashback Summer: International Vintage: Traditional Egypt 1900s-1940s." Flashback Summer: International Vintage: Traditional Egypt 1900s-1940s. N.p., n.d. Web. 25 Sept. 2014.


http://rubyeyedokapi.files.wordpress.com/2011/11/egyptian-women.jpg

"Koshary." Allrecipes.com. N.p., n.d. Web. 25 Sept. 2014.


"Thinking Foundation — Minds of Egypt." Thinking Foundation — Minds of Egypt. N.p., n.d. Web. 25 Sept. 2014.


"The Prince & His Three Fates - a Folk Tale from Egypt Presented by Whootie Owl." The Prince & His Three Fates - a Folk Tale from Egypt Presented by Whootie Owl. N.p., n.d. Web. 25 Sept. 2014.


www.cemmel.colostate.edu/cultural/09476/egypt02-01enl.html

"Egypt Profile." BBC News. BBC, 29 May 2014. Web. 25 Sept. 2014.


"Cleopatra:Egypt's last Pharaoh."Cleopatra: Egypt's Last Pharaoh.N.p.,n.d.

Web.26 Sept. 2014

Cleopatra: The last Pharaoh of Egypt

Following the death of Alexander the Great, the Ptolemaic dynasty ruled over Egypt. Out of this family came Cleopatra VII Philophator commonly known just as Cleopatra. She was born in 69 B.C in Alexandria, Egypt. Her father, Ptolemy XII, was Pharaoh at this time. When Cleopatra was 11, her father was forced out of Egypt only to come back in three years with the help of the famous Roman general named Pompey. While he was gone his oldest daughter, Beranice, ruled but was later killed by her father came back leaving Cleopatra heir to the throne. In 51 B.C, Ptolemy died so Cleopatra became Pharaoh and married her brother, Ptolemy XIII, at the age of 17.

Soon after marrying his sister, Ptolemy XIII grew jealous of his sister and gathered an army of men. He forced Cleopatra out of Egypt and into Syria leaving himself as Pharaoh. While Cleopatra was gone, a battle for supremacy took place in Rome. Two generals, Julius Ceaser and Pompey, were at constant war until Pompey lost and sought help from Egypt. Ptolemy had Pompey killed because his advisers suggested it and sided with Ceaser. Soon Ceaser arrived on the outskirts of Alexandria where he heard that Pompey was dead. Ceaser marched into the city, took over the palace, and began ordering around the palace staff. Meanwhile, Cleopatra was back in Egypt.

Cleopatra knew she wouldn't be able to sneak back into the palace so she devised a plan to roll herself up in a carpet and deliver it to Ceaser. Ceaser was so impressed by her determination he sided with her. When Ptolemy saw they were together he fled only to be stopped by Ceaser's army. However, Ptolemy's army gained control of the palace and demanded that Ptolemy would be released. Fighting erupted and lasted for six months until the Roman army defeated Ceaser's army and Ptolemy was killed while trying to flee. Cleopatra was soon named the rightful ruler of Egypt.

After a few months, Ceaser left Egypt and returned to Rome and later invited Cleopatra to come. Ceaser also wanted Cleopatra to marry him although he already had a wife. On March 15, 44 B.C Ceaser was assassinated so Cleopatra , fearing her safety, returned to Egypt. She ruled Egypt for two years until another Roman general, Marc Antony, ended up in Egypt and fell in love with her. He loved her so much that Egypt became the place he was at unless he was fighting.

Antony's rival, Octavian, declared war on him leading them to a massive sea battle in 31 B.C. Antony's army was obliterated but he managed to slip back into Egypt alive. Later, Octavian reached Alexandria which left Antony to defend Egypt. Antony was no match for Octavian and after Cleopatra heard, she told her servants to proclaim to Antony that she was dead. After hearing this, he stabbed himself to death. Cleopatra, hearing of Antony's death, killed herself with a snake. Octavian gained control of Egypt so Cleopatra was the last Pharaoh.


~History of Egypt~

Egyptian History officially started in 4,221 B.C. because that is supposed to be the base year of the Egyptian calendar. Sometime in 3,900 B.C. the Egyptian copper age begins and four hundred years later, in 3,500 B.C. papyrus is made. In 3,100 B.C. , King Narmer (or Menes) united Upper and Lower Egypt. He did this by conquering them of course. At this point in time they establish the Pharaoh as a "god king" and the first hieroglyphics are made. In 2,900 B.C., "officials become a distinct social class."

About two hundred years later, in 2,700 B.C., the Old Kingdom starts. Fifty years later the Egyptians invent a calendar with three hundred and sixty-five days. In 2,500 B.C. the Great Sphinx is built along with the Chefren Pyramid. In the same year as the Sphinx is built an "automatic patriarchal monarchy" goes to be controlled by bureaucracy. In time, this increases the power the high priests and high officials. Around 2,180 B.C. and 2,050 B.C., the Old Kingdom ends and 2,500 B.C. marks the beginning of the Middle Kingdom. During 2,000 B.C., the current Pharaoh at the time puts restrictions on the noble's power. 1,700 B.C. is when the Hyskos invade and when they invade, they introduce chariots. The Hyskos remained in control of Egypt until 1,580 B.C. when the Egyptians kick them out unite again. In 1,555 B.C., the New Kingdom starts. 1,490 B.C. marks the beginning of Queen Hatshepsut's reign. She increased trade in Egypt. Over one hundred and twenty years later, in 1,300 B.C., King Tut's reign begins. In either 1,446 B.C. or 1,456 B.C. was when Moses freed the Israelites from Egypt.

In 715 B.C. was when Egypt got conquered by the Ethiopians. But, less than on hundred years later in 671 B.C., the Assyrians conquer Egypt. Less than thirty years later, Egypt united and the Egyptians and the Assyrians separate. 529 B.C is the time when Persia conquers Egypt. From that time until 332 B.C., the Persians rule Egypt. 332 B.C. is when Alexander the Great comes in and gets Egypt but the Egyptians don't put up much of a fight. Exactly one hundred and thirty-five years later, Egypt loses control of Palestine (or Israel). Two important things occurred in 30 B.C. The first were the deaths of Cleopatra and Marc Anthony. The second being the Battle of Actium. In A.D 269, a warrior queen and her army invade Egypt and she crowns herself the Queen of Egypt. She is known as Cleopatra VII.

From A.D. 639 to 1882, Egypt was ruled by the Muslim empires (Ottoman's, Abbasid's, etc.). In 1882, a very important waterway for Egypt was built: the Suez Canal. Also, the British controlled Egypt from 1882 to 1922 when Egypt gains its independence. But before they gained their independence, Egypt was made a British protectorate in 1914. Years later, on May 15th, 1948, Egypt, Syria, Iraq, and Jordan go to war and attack Israel. This is one day after Israel became an official nation! Later, in the June of 1953, the President/Prime Minister of Egypt (Muhammad Najiib) declares that Egypt is now a republic.

The British had still been in Egypt even though they had gained their independence. So, in 1954, the British signed an evacuation treaty that forced all British troops to get out of Egypt. In June of 1987, Egypt got into another war with Israel. This war lasted six days. At first it looked like Egypt and Syria were going to win then Israel kicked their butts. 1971 was when the Egyptians and the Soviets signed the Treaty of Friendship, the Aswan Dam was completed, and the introduction to Egypt's new constitution. Then came the Yom KIppur War in the October of 1973 when Egypt and Syria went up against Israel to get back land they lost in the Six Day War. The war officially ended when Egypt and Syria and Israel signed the Camp David Accords in September 1978. Not even a year later was a peace treaty between Israel and Egypt signed.

Egypt has come far since its beginnings but not always in a good way. There have been terrorist attacks from Egypt and Islamic groups in more recent years. Because of this, President Obama went to speak in Cairo, the capital of Egypt. His speech was called for a "new beginning between the U.S. and the Muslim world." In June 2010, Egypt held elections for the upper house in their parliament and not one member of the Muslim brotherhood got a seat in it. There have been more tragic things in Egypt's recent history too. In January 2011, twenty- one people were killed at a church where "Christians had gathered for the New Year."